i d ) for 1 week, peginterferon-alfa-2b for 2 weeks and combinati

i.d.) for 1 week, peginterferon-alfa-2b for 2 weeks and combination of the two for 2 weeks in varying order. In addition to predominant wild-type isolates, previously described boceprevir-resistant mutations (V36, T54, R155, A156, V170) were observed. Furthermore, two resistant mutations (Q41, F43) were detected for the first time in vivo. In three patients, mutations selected after initial

treatment with boceprevir were re-selected during subsequent boceprevir exposure. However, mutational patterns after the first and second exposure to boceprevir were different in five patients. In one patient, a viral variant (V55A) known to AG-881 ic50 reduce susceptibility to boceprevir was the predominant variant observed at baseline and throughout treatment and was associated with a shallow viral decline.

Different resistance mutations were selected during treatment with boceprevir +/- peginterferon. Sequential short-term dosing of boceprevir was not associated with accumulation of resistant variants but pre-existing variants may impair virologic response.”
“The incidence of severe hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has been increasing. However, clinicopathologic features of severe HAV infection that lead to liver transplantation (LT) have not been reported in Korea. We retrieved 16 LT cases with HAV infection during the last 3 years at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Fifteen cases progressed to hepatic encephalopathy. Thirteen cases survived with or without complications, and three patients died of sepsis. The explanted liver showed massive Selleck BMS-777607 or zonal necrosis with moderate to severe cholestasis. AICAR The zonal distribution of necrosis was frequently associated with endothelialitis of portal and/or central veins. Degenerative changes

of hepatocytes were various in degree and distribution. Viral inclusions were suspected in two cases. Although HAV infection is usually confirmed by serological tests, significant venulitis of central and/or portal veins and viral inclusions, which are rarely observed, can suggest an HAV infection as a cause of massive hepatic necrosis of unknown mechanism.”
“The concept of personality has recently begun to attract a great deal of interest in behavioural ecology. However, there is also a large and mature literature on personality within human psychology. These two bodies of work have developed independently and at present make rather little reference to one another. The current paper has two main objectives. First, we seek to acquaint behavioural ecologists with the principal ideas and issues found in the human personality psychology literature. Second, we explore how ideas from the behavioural ecology literature might help advance research in human personality psychology. We suggest strong potential for convergence between the two literatures in the near future.

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