(grade A) The ultrasonographic diagnostic criteria for hepatic ma

(grade A) The ultrasonographic diagnostic criteria for hepatic mass by the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine specify the following six findings as the B-mode ultrasound findings specific to hepatocellular carcinoma: “sharp and smooth boundary”, “presence of marginal faint hypoechoic zone”, “internal mosaic pattern”, “internal star-shaped anechoic area”, “posterior echo enhancement” and “lateral shadows” (LJ062261 level 6). In particular, for Obeticholic Acid manufacturer tumors with a large diameter, these ultrasound findings have a high specificity and correct diagnosis rate for making a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (LF031202 level 1, LF028483

level 1, LF027844 level 1). Nonetheless, for small tumor sizes, the frequency of obtaining specific findings decreases, and the findings can only be classified as a “low echo pattern” or “high echo pattern”. Because of the decrease in the specificity (LF031202 level 1,

LF030695 level 4), the capacity of this method for differentiation from other liver tumors, such as metastatic liver cancer and hemangioma of the liver, is limited. In contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, tumor vessels are extracted in the early arterial phase (LF019356 level 1, LF020587 level 1, LF109018 level 1, LF110689 level 1). As compared with conventional power Doppler ultrasonography, this method improves the detection capability of tumor blood flow, particularly for small nodules 30 mm or less in diameter,

and the detection capability of tumor blood flow is equivalent to that of CT (LF1031710 level 1, LF1059311 level click here 1, LF1004212 level 1, LF1057013 level 1). Contrast ultrasonography using Levovist shows a filling defect in the parenchymal phase (LF0190814 level 1, LF0192115 level 1, LF110689 level 1). As compared with non-contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography has been demonstrated to improve the detection capability of lesions (LF1031710 level 1), to enhance the capacity for differentiation between benign MCE公司 and malignant lesions (LF1078216 level 1, LF1094517 level 1, LF1077718 level 3), and to be useful for determining the degree of differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma (LF1042519 level 3), however, the diagnostic performance declines for deep lesions (LF020587 level 1). Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is currently in a situation where advances are being made in the devices, imaging techniques and contrast media used. It is suggested to be useful for determining the degree of malignancy of hepatocellular carcinoma and differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from benign diseases. There are data to suggest that its diagnostic performance is equivalent to that of CT. As compared with CT, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography has the advantage of not causing radiation exposure and being implementable in patients who are allergic to iodine contrast or decreased renal function.

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