Further investigation is warranted. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;138(6):577-583″
“Background: Surgical treatment of stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be performed either by thoracotomy or by employing video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). The aim of this study was to compare long and short-term results of conventional AZD9291 cell line surgery (CS) vs. VATS lobectomy in the treatment of stage I NSCLC. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective, analytical study of patients undergoing surgery for stage I NSCLC during the period January 1993 to December 2005.
The variables analyzed were overall survival, recurrence, distant metastasis, morbidity, mortality and hospital stay. During this period, 256 anatomic lung resections were performed: 141 by CS and
115 by VATS. Results: There were statistically significant differences in: (i) mean hospital stay in patients with no complications (VATS group: 4.3 days vs. CS group: 8.7 days, P = .0001); (ii) mean hospital stay in patients with complications (VATS: 7.2 days vs. CS: 13.7 days, P =. 0001), and (iii) morbidity (VATS: 15.6% vs. CS: 36.52%, P = .0001). No statistically significant differences were found in: (i) mortality (VATS: 2.17% vs. CS: 1.7%, P = .88); (ii) 5-year overall survival (VATS: 68.1% vs. CS: 63.8%), and (iii) local recurrence and distant metastasis MK-1775 mw (P = .82). Conclusions: VATS lobectomy is a safe and effective approach, with a shorter hospital stay and lower morbidity than CS; no statistically significant differences were observed in survival in patients undergoing surgery for stage I NSCLC. (C) 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives
to landowners for increased provision of NVP-BSK805 nmr ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners’ costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information.