Following optimization of

the assay protocols

Following optimization of

the assay protocols see more and using the MIC results as a reference standard, the absorbance-read MIS assay, the fluorescence-read CTB assay and the absorbance-read CTB (CTB(abs)) assay demonstrated similar high sensitivities (97%, 99% and 98%, respectively), specificities (100%, 98% and 99%, respectively), accuracy measures (0.99, 0.98 and 0.98, respectively), precision measures (1.00, 0.98 and 0.99, respectively) and Cohen kappa agreement indices (0.97, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively) for detecting CPE in cell cultures. Due to its performance, cost effectiveness and ease of use, the CTBabs assay was selected for further evaluation of its ability to detect virus neutralization and to screen antiviral compounds. The CTBabs assay had 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of neutralizing antibodies in sera from cattle infected

with FMDV and in sera from unvaccinated, uninfected cattle and resulted in a mean Z’-factor of 0.85 for antiviral compound test plates. The CTB(abs) assay is now used routinely in the Belgian FMD reference laboratory for serological testing and high-throughput antiviral compound screening. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have significant tropism towards glioma which makes them play an important role in carrying genes/drugs to inhibit the growth of glioma as cell vehicles. But BMSCs may differentiate into neural cells under entocranial environment and few researches support the idea that neurally differentiated bone marrow stromal cells (N-D-BMSCs) still hold the capacity of migrating to the tumor sites. The aim of our study selleck compound was to investigate the tropism of N-D-BMSCs towards C6 glioma. In vitro migration assay was employed by transwell co-culture system and Student’s t-test analysis indicated that N-D-BMSCs had the significant tropism towards C6 glioma-conditioned medium (GCM) (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the vascular endothelial growth click here factor (VEGF) bioactivity of the C6

GCM was neutralized by the anti-rat VEGF antibody and our data suggested that the VEGF from C6 GCM hold chemoattraction for N-D-BMSCs and some other cytokines from the C6 GCM may be responsible for the chemoattraction for N-D-BMSCs. In vivo migration assay was carried out with cells transplantation and one way ANOVA analysis indicated that the tropism of N-D-BMSCs towards C6 glioma sites presented time variation (P-value = 2.9E-20). Moreover, multiple comparisons for the time variables with the Student’s t-test and the results suggested that the migration capacity of N-D-BMSCs towards C6 glioma sites reach the peak on the 7th day after transplantation. These results demonstrate that N-D-BMSCs as well as BMSCs have significant tropism towards C6 glioma. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), together with enterovirus type 71 (EV71), is responsible for most cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide.

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