First, historical

concepts related to

First, historical

concepts related to selleck kinase inhibitor the detection of stretch by the vessel wall are reviewed, including the wall tension hypothesis, and the implications of the proposal that the arteriolar network responds to Pp changes as a system of series-coupled myogenic effectors. Next, the role of the myogenic response in the local regulation of blood flow and/or Pc is examined. Finally, the interaction of myogenic constriction and dilation with other local control mechanisms, including metabolic, neural and shear-dependent mechanisms, is discussed. Throughout the review, an attempt is made to integrate historical and current literature with an emphasis on the physiological role, rather than the underlying signaling mechanisms, of this important component of vascular control. “
“Please cite this paper as: Weiss M, Li P, Roberts MS. Estimation of sinusoidal flow heterogeneity in normal and diseased rat livers from tracer dilution data using a fractal model.

Microcirculation 19: 723–728, 2012. Objectives:  Up to now, vascular indicator-dilution curves have been analyzed by numerical integration or by fitting empirical functions to the data. Here, we apply a recently developed mechanistic model with the goal to quantitatively Fulvestrant clinical trial describe flow distribution in the sinusoidal network of normal rat livers and those with high-fat emulsion-induced NASH. Methods:  Single-pass outflow concentration data of sucrose were obtained from in situ perfused rat livers after impulse injection. The model fitted to the data consists of a continuous mixture of inverse Gaussian densities assuming a normal distribution of regional flow. It accounts for the fractal flow heterogeneity in the organ and has three adjustable parameters with a clear physiological interpretation. Results:  The model fitted the data well and revealed that the intrahepatic flow dispersion of 49.6 % in the control group increased significantly to 87.2 % in the NASH group (p < 0.01).

In contrast to previously used empirical functions, the present model exhibits a power-law tail (∼t−2.4), which is a signature of fractal microvascular networks. Conclusions:  The approach offers the Histone demethylase possibility to determine hepatic blood flow heterogeneity in perfused livers and to evaluate the functional implications. “
“Please cite this paper as: Neitzke, Harder, and Plagemann (2011). Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Developmental Programming of the Metabolic Syndrome: A Critical Appraisal. Microcirculation 18(4), 304–311. According to the “small baby syndrome hypothesis,” low birthweight and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) occurring in westernized countries mainly through altered placental flow, have been linked to increased metabolic syndrome risk in later life. Independency and causal mechanisms of this phenomenological association are a matter of controversy.

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