(c) 2009 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“The norepineph

(c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The norepinephrine nucleus, locus coeruleus (LC), has been implicated in cognitive

aspects of the stress response, in part through its regulation by the stress-related neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). LC neurons discharge in tonic and phasic modes that differentially modulate attention and behavior. Here, the effects of exposure to an ethologically relevant selleck stressor, predator odor, on spontaneous (tonic) and auditory-evoked (phasic) LC discharge were characterized in unanesthetized rats. Similar to the effects of CRF, stressor presentation increased tonic LC discharge and decreased phasic auditory-evoked discharge, thereby decreasing buy CA4P the

signal-to-noise ratio of the sensory response. This stress-induced shift in LC discharge toward a high tonic mode was prevented by a CRF antagonist. Moreover. CRF antagonism during stress unmasked a large decrease in tonic discharge rate that was opioid mediated because it was prevented by pretreatment with the opiate antagonist, naloxone. Elimination of both CRF and opioid influences with an antagonist combination rendered LC activity unaffected by the stressor. These results demonstrate that both CRF and opioid afferents are engaged during stress to fine-tune LC activity. The predominant CRF influence shifts the operational mode of LC activity toward a high tonic state that is thought to facilitate behavioral flexibility and may be adaptive in coping with the stressor. Simultaneously, stress engages an opposing opioid influence that restrains the CRF influence and may facilitate recovery toward pre-stress levels of activity. Changes in the balance of CRF:opioid

regulation of the LC could have consequences for stress vulnerability. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The number of unemployed patients presenting in general practice will increase over the next Selleck Kinase Inhibitor Library 12 months.\n\nUnemployed patients are likely to present with physical and psychological problems, including insomnia, depression, anxiety and a worsening of cardiovascular risk factors; family members are also likely to be affected.\n\nGPs have an important role in early detection and management of these health problems; effective approaches include cognitive behaviour techniques, goal-setting and motivational counselling.\n\nAppropriate provision of medical certificates, advocacy and social support help redress the loss of the personal and social “vitamins” of work.\n\nWhile access to psychological services has improved, patients may also need to be referred to social workers, and employment and welfare services.

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