Differences between trials could possibly be attributed to the us

Differences between trials could possibly be attributed to the use of carboplatin; however, this seems unlikely because carboplatin is associated

with lower rates of nausea, vomiting, and nephrotoxicity, but a higher rate of thrombocytopenia, relative EGFR inhibitor to cisplatin [5, 6]. In this exploratory analysis, defining ≥65 years as ‘elderly’ allowed for sufficient patient numbers to be included in the main subgroup. Further analysis of ≥70-year-old patients showed efficacy and safety similar to those in ≥65-year-old patients, but the former was limited by a small population size, yielding more variable results. Our study underscores that NSCLC patients, regardless of age, benefit from appropriate treatment [13], and supports the idea that treatment selection in the elderly should not be based solely on chronological age. This exploratory analysis suggests that the outcomes of elderly patients with

nonsquamous NSCLC are consistent with those in the <70-year age group and the Q-ITT population with respect to dose intensity, efficacy, and tolerability. Therefore, with few limitations, elderly patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC and good performance status should be treated similarly to younger patients. We and others have shown that platinum-based SCH727965 cost doublet therapy is a tolerable, viable option for elderly advanced NSCLC patients [11, 12, 14]. However, our conclusions are hypothesis generating, as this retrospective analysis had a small sample size and unbalanced between-arm patient characteristics. The limitations of retrospective elderly patient studies include potential differences between chronological age and medical fitness, elderly population heterogeneity, arbitrary age cut-offs, and age-associated co-morbidities. Our selection criteria

of fit elderly patients may not have been applicable to the general elderly population. Therefore, a prospective clinical trial involving a carefully controlled group of elderly patients is warranted. Acknowledgments This work was supported by Eli Lilly and Company. The sponsor was responsible for the design and conduct of the trial, as well as the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. The manuscript was prepared with input from all authors; all authors approved the final version for submission Racecadotril to the journal. Rebecca Cheng and Mauro Orlando are employees of Eli Lilly and Company and own stock in the company. Helen Barraclough is an employee of Eli Lilly and Company. Joo-Hang Kim’s institution received a grant from Eli Lilly and Company for this clinical trial. José Rodrigues-Pereira has no relevant conflicts of interest to report. The authors wish to thank the patients, their families, and the study personnel who participated in this clinical trial. We also thank Shu Bin Liu and Wei Shan Shi for assistance with statistical analyses.

However, L reuteri CF48-3A and ATCC 55730 did not suppress TNF p

However, L. reuteri CF48-3A and ATCC 55730 did not suppress TNF production GS-1101 price by LPS-activated cells, while PTA 6475 and ATCC PTA 5289 inhibited production of TNF by 76% and 77% respectively, when compared to the media control (ANOVA,

p < 0.001). Figure 4 L. reuteri strains proficient in biofilm formation suppress TNF production. Cell-free supernatants from L. reuteri biofilms cultured in 24-well plates (A) or flow cells (B) were added to human monocytoid cells in the presence of E. coli-derived LPS. Quantitative ELISAs measured the amounts of human TNF produced by THP-1 cells. As biofilms, TNF inhibitory strains (ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC PTA 5289) retained their ability to suppress TNF produced by LPS-activated human monocytoid cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC PTA 5289 biofilms cultured in 24-well plates (A) inhibited TNF by 60% and 50% respectively, (ANOVA, p < 0.02). Supernatants of L. reuteri ATCC PTA 5289 cultured in a flow cell (B) inhibited TNF by 73% when compared to the media control (ANOVA, p < 0.0001). L. reuteri selleck inhibitor cultured as planktonic cells and biofilms produced the antimicrobial factor, reuterin Antimicrobial activities of

L. reuteri were assessed by examining supernatants of planktonic and biofilm cultures for reuterin. Planktonic cells and biofilms of L. reuteri produced reuterin, although differences in reuterin production were evident among strains. Planktonic cultures of

ATCC PTA 6475, ATCC PTA 5289, ATTC 55730 and CF48-3A produced 51.2, 45.2, 225.9, and 230.3 mM of reuterin, respectively. When reuterin quantities were normalized to initial CFU/mL, planktonic cultures of ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC PTA 5289 produced 2.32 and 2.3 mmol reuterin/1012 cells, respectively, and ATCC 55730 and CF48-3A produced 31.89 and 36.24 mmol reuterin/1012 cells, respectively (Fig. 5). For biofilms cultured in multiwell plates, the four wild type L. reuteri strains ATCC PTA 6475, ATCC PTA 5289, ATTC 55730 and CF48-3A produced 26.8, 16.5, 19.1, and 22.1 mM of reuterin, respectively. After normalization of reuterin quantities to bacterial cell counts, ATCC PTA 6475, ATCC PTA 5289, CF48-3A, and ATCC 55730 produced 6.61, 5.41, 43.4, however and 53.94 mmol of reuterin/1012 cells, respectively, when cultured as biofilms in multiwell plates (Fig. 6). Trends in reuterin production were consistent with planktonic and biofilm cultures of ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 5289 producing lower quantities of reuterin than strains ATCC 55730 and CF48-3A. Interestingly, the relative abilities of L. reuteri strains to produce reuterin were inversely correlated with relative abilities to aggregate and adhere to polystyrene (Fig. 1A). Figure 5 L. reuteri strains cultured as planktonic cells produce the antimicrobial compound, reuterin. Stationary phase planktonic cultures of L. reuteri were incubated anaerobically in a glycerol solution.

J Natl Cancer Inst 1996, 88:1222–1227 PubMedCrossRef 17 Cao M, Y

J Natl Cancer Inst 1996, 88:1222–1227.PubMedCrossRef 17. Cao M, Yie SM, Wu SM, Chen S, Lou B, He X, Ye SR, Xie K, Rao L, Gao E, Ye NY: Detection of survivin-expressing circulating cancer cells in the peripheral blood of patients with esophageal squamous MK-2206 solubility dmso cell carcinoma and its clinical significance. Clin Exp Metastasis 2009, 26:751–758.PubMedCrossRef 18. Wagner GF, Jaworski EM, Haddad M: Stanniocalcin in the seawater salmon: structure, function, and regulation. Am J Physiol 1998, 274:R1177-R1185.PubMed 19. Deol HK, Varghese R, Wagner GF, Dimattia GE: Dynamic regulation of mouse ovarian stanniocalcin expression during gestation and lactation. Endocrinology

2000, 141:3412–3421.PubMedCrossRef 20. Zhang K, Lindsberg PJ, Tatlisumak T, Kaste M, Olsen HS, Andersson LC: Stanniocalcin: a molecular guard of neurons during cerebral ischemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000, 97:3637–3642.PubMedCrossRef

21. Nguyen A, Chang AC, Reddel RR: Stanniocalcin-1 acts in a negative feedback loop in the prosurvival ERK1/2 signaling pathway selleck chemicals during oxidative stress. Oncogene 2009, 28:1982–1992.PubMedCrossRef 22. He LF, Wang TT, Gao QY, Zhao GF, Huang YH, Yu LK, Hou YY: Stanniocalcin-1 promotes tumor angiogenesis through up-regulation of VEGF in gastric cancer cells. J Biomed Sci 2011, 18:39.PubMedCrossRef 23. Chang AC, Jellinek DA, Reddel RR: Mammalian stanniocalcins and cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer 2003, 10:359–373.PubMedCrossRef 24. Okabe H, Satoh S, Kato T, Kitahara O, Yanagawa R, Yamaoka Y, Tsunoda T, Furukawa Y, Nakamura Y: Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinomas using cDNA microarray: identification of genes involved in Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 viral carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Cancer Res 2001, 61:2129–2137.PubMed 25. Fujiwara Y, Sugita Y, Nakamori S, Miyamoto A, Shiozaki K, Nagano H, Sakon M, Monden M: Assessment of Stanniocalcin-1

mRNA as a molecular marker for micrometastases of various human cancers. Int J Oncol 2000, 16:799–804.PubMed 26. Macartney-Coxson DP, Hood KA, Shi HJ, Ward T, Wiles A, O’Connor R, Hall DA, Lea RA, Royds JA, Stubbs RS, Rooker S: Metastatic susceptibility locus, an 8p hot-spot for tumour progression disrupted in colorectal liver metastases: 13 candidate genes examined at the DNA, mRNA and protein level. BMC Cancer 2008, 8:187.PubMedCrossRef 27. Liu G, Yang G, Chang B, Mercado-Uribe I, Huang M, Zheng J, Bast RC, Lin SH, Liu J: Stanniocalcin 1 and ovarian tumorigenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010, 102:812–827.PubMedCrossRef 28. McCudden CR, Majewski A, Chakrabarti S, Wagner GF: Co-localization of stanniocalcin-1 ligand and receptor in human breast carcinomas. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2004, 213:167–172.PubMedCrossRef 29. Watanabe T, Ichihara M, Hashimoto M, Shimono K, Shimoyama Y, Nagasaka T, Murakumo Y, Murakami H, Sugiura H, Iwata H, Ishiguro N, Takahashi M: Characterization of gene expression induced by RET with MEN2A or MEN2B mutation. Am J Pathol 2002, 161:249–256.PubMedCrossRef 30.

Variations in mechanical properties for BFO thin films deposited

Variations in mechanical properties for BFO thin films deposited under different conditions are discussed in conjunction with the crystalline structure, grain size, and surface morphology of the resultant films. Methods The BFO thin films investigated in this study were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates at the deposition temperatures of 350°C, 400°C, and 450°C, respectively. The deposition process was conducted in a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system, and a

commercially available Bi1.1FeO3 pellet was used as the target. The base pressure of the sputtering chamber was better than 1 × 10−7 Torr. During deposition, a mixed gas of Ar/O2 = 4:1 with a total pressure was introduced, and the input power was maintained at 80 W. All of the BFO thin films are about 200 nm thick. The composition of the film was identified by an energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and double checked by X-ray MK0683 mw fluorescence analysis. The crystal structure of BFO thin films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (X’Pert XRD, PANalytical B.V., Almelo, The Netherlands; CuKα, λ = 1.5406 Å). The selleckchem surface features were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM; Topometrix-Accures-II, Topometrix Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The root mean square of the surface roughness, R RMS, was calculated by the

following equation [16]: (1) Here N is the number of data and r n is the surface height of the nth datum. Nanoindentation experiments were preformed on a MTS Nano Indenter® XP system (MTS Nano Instruments, Knoxville, TN, USA) with a three-sided pyramidal

Berkovich indenter tip by using the CSM technique [15]. This technique is accomplished by imposing a small, sinusoidal varying force on top of the applied linear force that drives the motion of the indenter. The displacement response of the indenter at the excitation frequency and the phase angle between the force and displacement are measured continuously as a function of the penetration depth. Solving for the in-phase and out-of-phase portions of the displacement response gives rise to the determination of the Casein kinase 1 contact stiffness as a continuous function of depth. As such, the mechanical properties changing with respect to the indentation depth can be obtained. The nanoindentation measurements were carried out as follows: First, prior to applying loading on BFO thin films, nanoindentation was conducted on the standard fused silica sample to obtain the reasonable range (Young’s modulus of fused silica is 68~72 GPa). Then, a constant strain rate of 0.05 s−1 was maintained during the increment of load until the indenter reached a depth of 60 nm into the surface. The load was then held at the maximum value of loading for 10 s in order to avoid the creep which might significantly affect the unloading behavior.

0 for Windows (GraphPad Software, Inc , La Jolla, CA, USA) A p v

0 for Windows (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). A p value ≤0.05 was considered significant. Details of each statistical test used are given in the corresponding figure legend. Results Germinated conidia are more suitable for polymicrobial biofilm formation The initial attempt for developing an in vitro A. fumigatus-P. aeruginosa polymicrobial biofilm model by simultaneous static coculturing of A. fumigatus conidia and P. aeruginosa cells at a cell ratio of 1:1 resulted in the complete killing of A. fumigatus cells. We therefore investigated the fungicidal effects of P. aeruginosa cell densities ranging from Selleckchem Selumetinib 1 × 101 to 1 × 106 cells/ml

on the survival of 1 × 106 A. fumigatus conidia GDC 0449 per ml after 24-h simultaneous static coculturing. As shown in Figure 2A, the fungicidal activity of P. aeruginosa against A. fumigatus conidia was directly proportional to P. aeruginosa : A. fumigatus cell ratio. Ten and hundred P. aeruginosa

cells in 1 ml of SD broth containing 1 × 106 conidia showed very little killing of A. fumigatus conidia (P = 0.5456 and 0.0871, respectively), 1 × 103 and 1 × 104 P. aeruginosa cells showed moderate killing (P = 0.0002 and 0.0005, respectively) whereas 1 × 105 and 1 × 106 P. aeruginosa cells killed A. fumigatus conidia 99.9% and 99.99% (P = 0.0003), respectively. In contrast, P. aeruginosa cell densities ranging from 1 × 101-1 × 106 cells/ml did not affect the viability of A. fumigatus sporelings grown from a conidial suspension for 12 h or longer and provided more or

less the same number of CFU/ml Rebamipide [Figure 2B] after 24 h co-culturing. The lack of fungicidal activity was not because of A. fumigatus inhibition of P. aeruginosa growth since inoculation of sporelings with 1 × 101 to 1 × 106 P. aeruginosa cells/ml provided approximately 1 × 1010 P. aeruginosa CFU/ml indicating that growth of P. aeruginosa was not affected by the presence of 1 × 106 A. fumigatus sporelings/ml. The P. aeruginosa cells with faster growth rate reached stationary phase in 24 h in the presence of A. fumigatus sporelings and formed a polymicrobial biofilm suggesting that a range of P. aeruginosa cell densities could be used to develop a polymicrobial biofilm with A. fumigatus sporelings. Figure 2 Effects of P. aeruginosa on A. fumigatus conidia (A) and sporelings (B) in cocultures. A. fumigatus conidia (A) and sporelings (B) at a density of 1 × 106 cells/ml were incubated with P. aeruginosa cells ranging from 1 x 101-1 x 106 cells/ml in 1 ml SD broth at 35°C for 24 h. At the end of the incubation the adherent microbial growth containing fungal and bacterial cells were washed 3 times with distilled water (1 ml each) and the viability of the cells was determined by CFU assay. In all mixed cultures the P. aeruginosa CFUs were similar (≈1 × 1010 CFU/ml).

Nanotechnology 2008, 19:015603 CrossRef 21 Damm C, Münstedt H: K

Nanotechnology 2008, 19:015603.CrossRef 21. Damm C, Münstedt H: Kinetic aspects of the silver ion release from antimicrobial polyamide/silver nanocomposites. Appl Phys A 2008, 91:479–486.CrossRef 22. Sanpui P, Murugadoss A, Prasad PV, Ghosh SS, Chattopadhyay A: The antibacterial properties of a novel

chitosan-Ag-nanoparticle composite. Int J Food Microbiol 2008, 124:142–146.CrossRef 23. Fayaz AM, Ao Z, Girilal M, Chen L, Xiao X, Kalaichelvan PT, Yao X: AZD3965 Inactivation of microbial infectiousness by silver nanoparticles-coated condom: a new approach to inhibit HIV- and HSV-transmitted infection. Int J Nanomed 2012, 7:5007–5018. 24. Shi C, Zhu Y, Ran X, Wang M, Su Y, Cheng T: Therapeutic potential of chitosan and its derivatives in regenerative medicine. J Surg Res 2006, 133:185–192.CrossRef 25. Mori Y, Tagawa T, Fujita M, Kuno T, Suzuki S, Matsui T, Ishihara M: Simple and environmentally friendly preparation and size control of silver nanoparticles using an inhomogeneous system with silver-containing glass powder. J Nanopart Res 2011, 13:2799–2806.CrossRef 26. Reed LJ, Muench H: A simple method of estimating fifty per cent endpoints. Am J Hyg 1938, 27:493–497. 27. LaBarre CH5424802 concentration DD, Lowy RJ: Improvements

in methods for calculating virus titer estimates from TCID50 and plaque assays. J Virol Methods 2001, 96:107–126.CrossRef 28. An J, Luo Q, Yuan X, Wang D, Li X: Preparation and characterization of silver-chitosan nanocomposite particles PtdIns(3,4)P2 with antimicrobial activity. J Appl Polym Sci 2011, 120:3180–3189.CrossRef 29. Sosa IO, Noguez C, Barrera RG:

Optical properties of metal nanoparticles with arbitrary shapes. J Phys Chem B 2003, 107:6269–6275.CrossRef 30. Lara HH, Garza-Treviño EN, Ixtepan-Turrent L, Singh DK: Silver nanoparticles are broad-spectrum bactericidal and virucidal compounds. J Nanobiotechnology 2011, 9:30.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions YMo designed the research, performed the experiments, and drafted the manuscript and the figures. TO guided and performed the viral study. YMi supervised the virus study. VQN performed some of the experiments. TM participated in the design of the research. MI supervised and coordinated the study and approved the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Diabetes is caused by absolute or relatively insufficient insulin secretion. Hitherto, there is no cure for diabetes. Treatment with insulin prolongs survival and improves glycemic control, and current standard diabetes treatment regimens with insulin replacement remain away from ideal. Transplantation of either isolated islets or the whole pancreas provides another mode for insulin replacement [1] but is often accompanied by many undesirable side effects [2–4].

Theoretical approach Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a regu

Theoretical approach Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a regular sinusoidal ripple pattern with wave vector

aligned parallel to the projection of the incident ion flux of density J. Ion flux is incident in the xOz plane at an angle θ with respect to normal of the mean surface plane (the Oz axis) at any arbitrary point, O, on the surface. The gradient of the surface ∂h/∂x is given by tan , where α is the angle between the local surface normal and the Oz direction. Figure 1 Ion bombardment of a sinusoidal wave geometry. Ion flux density, J, incident at an angle θ with respect to mean surface plane is shown. Local surface gradient, tan . Sinusoidal wave is described by h = h 0 sin(2πx/λ), Alvelestat cell line where λ is the wavelength of the ripples, and h 0 is the amplitude. Following Carter, under the assumption of small local surface gradient everywhere, the fractional change in sputter erosion rate (with respect to a plane surface) can be expressed as follows: (1) where Y(θ) is the sputtering yield, and the coefficients a(θ), b(θ), and c(θ) are functions of cosθ, sinθ, and sputtering yield Y(θ) and its derivatives. Thus, fractional change in sputtering yield becomes a polynomial function of even powers of https://www.selleckchem.com/products/icg-001.html h 0/λ. As the h 0/λ ratio increases with continuous ion

bombardment, the local angle of incidence, (θ-α), along the ripple patterns will eventually become so large that the upstream part of the ripples will be shadowed from the incoming ion flux by the preceding peak. Thus, the limiting condition to avoid such shadowing of many incident beam is [26]: (2) According to this condition, if the ratio (h 0/λ) exceeds a threshold value, troughs of a sinusoid will not be eroded further but instead erosion will take place at the crests. This in turn may give rise to a sawtooth-like waveform. Methods The substrates

used in the experiments were cut from a Si(100) wafer. A UHV-compatible experimental chamber (PREVAC, Rogów, Poland) was used which is equipped with a five-axes sample manipulator and an electron cyclotron resonance-based broad beam, filamentless ion source (Tectra GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany). The chamber base pressure was below 5 × 10-9 mbar, and the working pressure was maintained at 2.5 × 10-4 mbar using a differential pumping unit. Silicon samples were fixed on a sample holder which was covered by a sacrificial silicon wafer of the same lot to ensure a low impurity environment. The beam diameter and the fixed ion flux (throughout this study) were measured to be 3 cm and 1.3 × 1014 ions cm-2 s-1, respectively. Corresponding to this flux value of 500 eV argon ions, the rise in sample temperature is nominal, and hence for all practical purposes, sample temperature should not be very high from room temperature.

Biometals 2007,20(3–4):699–703 PubMedCrossRef 18 Perry RD, Fethe

Biometals 2007,20(3–4):699–703.PubMedCrossRef 18. Perry RD, Fetherston JD: Iron and Heme Uptake Systems. In Yersinia Molecular and Cellular Biology. Edited by: Carniel EaH BJ.

Norfolk, U.K.: Horizon Bioscience; 2004:257–283. 19. Hantke K: Iron and metal regulation in bacteria. Curr Opin Microbiol 2001,4(2):172–177.PubMedCrossRef 20. Gao H, Zhou D, Li Y, Guo Z, Han Y, Song Y, Zhai J, Du Z, Wang X, Lu J, et al.: The iron-responsive Fur regulon in Yersinia pestis. J Bacteriol 2008,190(8):3063–3075.PubMedCrossRef FG 4592 21. de Lorenzo V, Perez-Martín J, Escolar L, Pesole G, Bertoni G: Mode of binding of the Fur protein to target DNA: negative regulation of iron-controlled gene expression. Washington D.C.: ASM Press; 2004. 22. Gottesman S, McCullen CA, Guillier M, Vanderpool CK, Majdalani N, Benhammou J, Thompson KM, FitzGerald PC, Sowa NA, FitzGerald DJ: Small RNA regulators and the bacterial response to stress. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 2006, 71:1–11.PubMedCrossRef 23. Masse E, Gottesman S: A small RNA regulates the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002,99(7):4620–4625.PubMedCrossRef 24. Wilderman PJ, Sowa NA, FitzGerald DJ, FitzGerald PC, Gottesman S, Ochsner UA, Vasil ML: Identification of tandem duplicate regulatory small RNAs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa involved in iron homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004,101(26):9792–9797.PubMedCrossRef

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g–i Asymmetrical, 1-septate reddish-brown ascospores Scale bars:

g–i Asymmetrical, 1-septate reddish-brown ascospores. Scale bars: a = 1 mm, b = 100 μm, c = 50 μm, d–i = 20 μm Ascomata 350–530 μm high × 550–700 μm diam., solitary, densely scattered, or in small groups

of 2–4, immersed, with a protruding papilla, 110–160 μm high, 160–250 μm diam., globose or subglobose, black, covered with white crystalline material which becomes hyaline and gel-like in water, ostiolate (Fig. 29a and b). Peridium 18–25 μm thick laterally (excluding the rim), up to 35 μm thick at the apex, thinner at the base, 1-layered, composed of small pale brown thin-walled RXDX-106 solubility dmso cells of textura prismatica, cells 5–12 × 3–5 μm diam., cell wall up to 1 μm thick, apex cells smaller and walls thicker (Fig. 29b). Hamathecium of dense, long pseudoparaphyses,

2–3 μm broad, branching and anastomosing between and above the asci. Asci 150–190(−230) × 12.5–15 μm (\( \barx = 172.5 \times 13.4\mu m \), n = 10), (6-)8-spored, rarely 4-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical, with a furcate pedicel which is up to 40 μm long, ocular chamber not observed (Fig. 29c, d and e). Ascospores 19–22.5 × 10–12 μm (\( \barx = 20.2 \times 11.4\mu m \), n = 10), uniseriate to obliquely uniseriate and partially overlapping, broadly ellipsoid with broadly to narrowly rounded ends, reddish brown, 1-septate, constricted at septum, asymmetric with a larger upper cell, thick-walled, possibly distoseptate (Fig. 29f, g and h). Anamorph: Aplosporella-like (for detailed description see Rossman et al. 1999). Conidiomata globose, ca. 300 μm diam. Conidia holoblastic, broadly fusoid,

13–15 × 7–10 μm, Saracatinib supplier dark brown, finely spinulose (Rossman et al. 1999). Material examined: ARGENTINA, Buenos Aires, Tuyu, on Celtis tala Gill., Jan. 1881, leg. det. C. Spegazzini (NY, isotype; LPS, holotype). Notes Morphology When established Dubitatio, Spegazzini (1881) considered it as intermediate between Sphaeriaceae and Nectriaceae as has been mentioned by Rossman et al. (1999). Müller and von Arx (1962) Meloxicam treated Dubitatio as a synonym of Passerinula, while the differences of ascomata and ascospores could easily distinguish these two genera (Rossman et al. 1999). After checking the type specimen, Dubitatio was assigned to Dothideomycetes, and considered closely related to Dothivalsaria in the Massariaceae (Barr 1979b, 1987b). Dubitatio chondrospora was assigned to Pseudomassaria (as P. chondrospora (Ces.) Jacz.) (Barr 1964; Müller and von Arx 1962). Phylogenetic study None. Concluding remarks The black ascomata with white crystalline covering and central white ostiolar region as well as the asymmetrical reddish brown ascospores are striking characters of Dubitatio dubitationum. The genus cannot be assigned to any family with certainty based on morphological characters and fresh collections are needed for sequencing. Entodesmium Reiss, Hedwigia 1: 28 (1854). (Phaeosphaeriaceae) Generic description Habitat terrestrial, saprobic (or parasitic?).

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Jpn J Appl Phys 2011, 50:04DD11.CrossRef 28. Zhao CZ, Zhang JF, Zahid MB, Efthymiou E, Lu Y, Hall S, Peaker AR, Groeseneken G, Pantisano L, Degraeve R, Gendt SD, Heyns M: Hydrogen induced positive charge in Hf-based dielectrics. Microelectronic Engineering 2007, 84:2354–2357.CrossRef 29. Yu SM, Guan XM, Wong HS: Conduction mechanism of TiN/HfO x /Pt resistive switching memory: a trap-assisted-tunneling model. Appl Phys Lett 2011, 99:063507.CrossRef 30. Jeong HY, Kim YI, Lee JY, Choi SY: A low-temperature-grown TiO 2 -based device for the flexible stacked RRAM application. Nanotechnology 2010, 21:115203.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions RCF carried out the sample fabrication and drafted the manuscript. WY carried out the device measurements. PZ and PFW participated in writing the manuscript and in the discussion of results. QQS and DWZ participated in the design of the study and performed statistical analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.