As IFN signalling is essential to the protective immune response

As IFN signalling is essential to the protective immune response against DENV, an obvious limitation of models using AG129, IFN-α/βR−/− and STAT1−/− mice is the difficulty

in studying the cell-mediated immune response against DENV as a whole in mice that lack important components of the host antiviral system.[47, 54] Humanized mice provide a controlled animal model that allows in vivo infection of human cells with DENV and elicits human DENV-specific immune responses. Using cord blood haematopoietic stem cell-engrafted selleck products NOD-scid IL2rγnull (NSG) mice, Jaiswal et al.[55] showed that the engrafted mice support DENV infection. Human T cells from infected NSG mice expressing the HLA-A2 transgene produced IFN-γ and TNF-α upon stimulation with DENV peptides. These mice also developed moderate levels of IgM antibodies directed against the DENV envelope protein.[55] Humanized NSG mice xenografted with human CD34+ cells from cord blood and infected with DENV-2 clinical strains showed signs of DF disease (fever, viraemia, erythema and thrombocytopenia).[56] The NOD/SCID strain

of mice lacks T and B cells and has defects in NK BAY 57-1293 cell function and antigen-presenting cell development and function and genetically lacks C5, resulting in a deficiency in haemolytic complement; it therefore provides an excellent environment for reconstitution with human haematopoietic cells and tissues.[57] The same research group demonstrated that the virus can infect human cells in the bone marrow, spleen and blood, with efficient secretion of cytokines and chemokines by human cells in humanized mice.[58] Finally, upon virus transmission with A. aegypti exposure the authors showed DHF/DSS (higher viraemia, erythema and thrombocytopenia, production of IFN-γ,

TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10). This is the first animal model that allows an evaluation of human immunity to DENV infection after mosquito inoculation.[59] Wild-type mice (BALB/c or C57BL/6) are resistant to DENV infection, but they have been increasingly used to investigate details of DENV pathogenesis. Intradermal infection of C57BL/6 mice with a non-mouse adapted DENV-2 strain, 16681, resulted in systemic haemorrhage and death with a high inoculum.[60] These mice also presented severe thrombocytopenia, high viraemia, Ribonucleotide reductase TNF-α production, macrophage infiltration and endothelial cell apoptosis. The same group showed that intravenous infection of C57BL/6 mice with a high inoculum of DENV-2 16681 led to hepatic injury/dysfunction, an important feature of DENV infection in humans.[61] One of the limitations of the latter model is the fact that disease is observed 3 days after infection using a high viral inoculum, which is inconsistent with clinical disease. BALB/c mice infected intraperitoneally with DENV-2 also showed hepatic damage and high levels of AST/ALT that peaked at day 7 post-infection.

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