A plane wave source is simulated at normal incidence to the structure. The computational domain (400 nm × 400 nm × 1,000 nm) has a perfectly matched layer (PML), absorbing boundaries in the z direction and periodic boundaries in the x-y plane [36]. A uniform FDTD mesh size is adopted. The mesh size is the same along all Cartesian axes: ∆x = ∆y = ∆z = 2 nm, which is sufficient to minimize the numerical errors arising from the FDTD method. Figure 1 Schematic of the proposed structure. (a) Schematic of the MDM structure consisting of

a 60-nm-thick Bi2Se3 dielectric layer between two 30-nm-thick Au films perforated with a square array of elliptical holes suspended in air. The lattice constant is L = 400 nm, and hole diameters are d 1 = 240 nm and d 2 = 120 nm. (b) Illustration of the square lattice of ENA. The topological

insulator material Bi2Se3 was selected NVP-BGJ398 price due to its significantly different optical properties between the trigonal and orthorhombic phases. The real (ϵ 1) and imaginary (ϵ 2) parts of the dielectric function for the different structural phases of Bi2Se3 were obtained from the published data in [28]; the NIR spectral region is shown in Figure 2. A large change in the dielectric function across the NIR is obtained after switching Bi2Se3 from trigonal to its orthorhombic phase. Figure 2 Dielectric constant of the Bi 2 Se 3 . (a) Real part of dielectric function ϵ 1(ω) for trigonal and orthorhombic phases of Bi2Se3. (b) Imaginary part of dielectric function ϵ 2(ω) for trigonal and orthorhombic https://www.selleckchem.com/products/rocilinostat-acy-1215.html all phases of Bi2Se3. After the complex coefficients of selleck transmission and reflection are obtained by the 3D EM Explorer Studio, in which T a is the amplitude and φ a is the phase of the transmission coefficient, and R a is the amplitude and φ ra is the phase of the reflection coefficient, the effective

optical parameters can be extracted using the Fresnel formula [37]. For an equivalent isotropic homogenous slab of thickness h surrounded by semi-infinite media with refractive index n 1 and n 3 under normal incidence, we have (1) (2) The so-called material parameters ϵ eff and μ eff of a single layer of a double-fishnet negative-index metamaterial are extracted using the well-known Nicholson-Ross-Weir (NRW) method [38–40]. Therefore, once n eff and η are evaluated, the effective permittivity and permeability are calculated using (3) where n eff is the effective refractive index, η is the impedance, h is the thickness of the structure, k = ω/c, c is the speed of light, m is an arbitrary integer, and n 1 = n 3 = 1 since the structure is suspended in a vacuum. The signs of n eff and η and the value of m are resolved by the passivity of the metamaterial that requires the signs of the real part of impedance η and imaginary part of effective index n eff to be positive, i.e., Real(η) > 0, Imag(n eff) > 0 which is consistent with the study described in [39, 40].