38 We then

determined if the phenotypic and endocytic dif

38 We then

determined if the phenotypic and endocytic differences between MoDCs and BDCs translated into differences in their ability to induce T-cell proliferation using autologous T cells. To this end, pigs were vaccinated with PTd and isolated cells were re-stimulated in vitro with two different antigens to be able to compare naive versus primed T cells. When the antigen OVA was used to address stimulation of naive T cells, BDCs induced Staurosporine cost less proliferation compared with MoDCs. However, when PTd was used for stimulation of autologous primed T cells, the extent of proliferation was the same between MoDCs and BDCs. As the activation threshold for naive T cells is higher because of an uncoupled signalling machinery,39,40 we assume that T cells to which OVA was presented were naive and required more signals that the BDCs were less able to provide. This could be attributed to their

lower endocytic ability. With respect to primed T cells, however, BDCs did not differ from MoDCs in their ability to drive T-cell proliferation, which may be a result of a lesser need for additional stimulation. It has also been demonstrated that the pDC population within the BDCs is better able to induce proliferation in antigen-experienced T cells compared with naive T cells.41 Therefore, porcine BDCs differ from MoDCs in their ability to stimulate Roxadustat ic50 naive T-cell proliferation but not primed T-cell proliferation. This is in contrast to observations made in mice41 and provides further evidence that BDCs indeed are able to drive T-cell activation in both naive and memory T cells.39 In summary, in the present study we compared two populations

of DCs in their phenotype, endocytic ability, response to LPS stimulation and ability to induce an antigen-specific immune response in pigs. The findings suggest that BDCs, which contain both pDCs and cDCs, are less endocytically active than MoDCs and have a lower expression Sclareol of CD80/86. They also have lower basal cytokine protein concentrations but in response to stimulation with LPS, there is a higher fold increase in response despite the absolute amounts being lower in MoDCs. Furthermore, this is the first time in the pig that chemokines have been examined in response to LPS in both MoDCs and BDCs and it allows for a more comprehensive view of DC behaviour. Lastly, both MoDCs and BDCs are able to induce T-cell proliferation, which is in contrast to observations made in mice,41 and which will further the understanding of these important cells and their role in driving antigen-specific immune responses. We are grateful to all members of the Animal Care Unit at VIDO for their help in isolating large amounts of blood and for housing the pigs. We are especially thankful to Amanda Giesbrecht and Jan Erickson. We also thank Krupal Patel, Stacy Strom and Justin Gawaziuk for their help in isolating PBMCs and DCs.

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