“Identification of potential ligand-binding pockets is an


“Identification of potential ligand-binding pockets is an initial step in receptor-based drug design. While many geometric or energy-based binding-site prediction methods characterize the size and shape of protein cavities, few of them offer an estimate of the pocket’s ability to bind small drug-like molecules. Here, we present a shape-based technique to examine binding-site drugg-ability from the crystal structure Wortmannin in vivo of a given protein target.

The method includes the PocketPicker algorithm to determine putative binding-site volumes for ligand-interaction. Pocket shape descriptors were calculated for both known ligand binding sites and empty pockets and were then subjected to self-organizing map clustering. Descriptors were calculated for structures derived from a database of representative drug-protein complexes with experimentally determined binding affinities to characterize the “”druggable pocketome”". The new method provides a means for selecting drug targets and potential ligand-binding

pockets based on structural considerations and addresses orphan binding sites.”
“Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) – undifferentiated cells originating from preimplantation see more stage embryos – have prolonged self-renewal capacity and are pluripotent. Activation of the canonical Wnt pathway is implicated in maintenance of and exit from the pluripotent state. Recent findings demonstrate that the essential mediator of canonical Wnt signaling, beta-catenin, is dispensable for ESC maintenance; however, its

activation inhibits differentiation through derepression of T cell factor 3 (Tcf3)-bound genes. Wnt agonists are useful in deriving ESCs from recalcitrant mouse strains and the rat and in nuclear reprogramming of somatic stem cells. We discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the regulation of ESC self-renewal and how its manipulation can improve pluripotent ESC selleck inhibitor derivation and maintenance.”
“Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) report difficulty integrating simultaneously presented visual and auditory stimuli (larocci & McDonald, 2006), albeit showing enhanced perceptual processing of unisensory stimuli, as well as an enhanced role of perception in higher-order cognitive tasks (Enhanced Perceptual Functioning (EPF) model; Mottron, Dawson, Soulieres, Hubert, & Burack, 2006). Individuals with an ASD also integrate auditory-visual inputs over longer periods of time than matched typically developing (TD) peers (Kwakye, Foss-Feig, Cascio, Stone & Wallace, 2011). To tease apart the dichotomy of both extended multisensory processing and enhanced perceptual processing, we used behavioral and electrophysiological measurements of audio-visual integration among persons with ASD.

p ) or MK-801 (0 03 mg/kg, i p ) immediately after training impai

p.) or MK-801 (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately after training impaired inhibitory avoidance performance at testing. Arcaine- and MK-801-induced performance impairment was reversed by the administration of arcaine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and MK-801 (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively, 30 min before testing. Response transfer also occurred if arcaine substituted MK-801 at testing, and vice-versa.

These results suggest SB431542 cost that arcaine and MK-801 induce state-dependent recall and that, probably due to their ability to decrease NMDA receptor function,

one drug can substitute for the other at testing, demonstrating a cross-state dependency between arcaine and MK-801.”
“Hedgehog (Hh) is a developmental signaling pathway in which Hh ligands bind Patched (Ptch), which relieves AMPK activator its inhibition of Smoothened (Smo), allowing the Gli family of transcription factors to translocate to the

nucleus and activate Hh target genes. The role of Hh signaling in hematopoiesis is controversial and ill defined. Although some groups observed self-renewal defects with decreased replating and reduced efficiency of secondary murine transplants, other groups reported no hematopoietic phenotypes, which may be related to the timing of Hh abrogation. In malignant hematopoiesis, most attention has been focused on the role of Hh signaling in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), considered by many to be a stem cell disorder that bears the constitutively active BCR-ABL tyrosine

kinase. Despite the elimination of most leukemia cells through BCR-ABL inhibition, most patients remain PCR positive, suggesting that the putative CML stem cell may be resistant to kinase antagonism. Groups are now exploring the Hh pathway as an alternate pathway supporting FG-4592 clinical trial CML stem cell survival. Knockdown or inhibition of Smo abrogates or delays the appearance of CML in several in vitro and in vivo models. These data have lead to clinical trials using BCR-ABL kinase and novel Smo inhibitors in combination. Leukemia (2011) 25, 1665-1673; doi:10.1038/leu.2011.143; published online 10 June 2011″
“Studies investigating reading and spelling difficulties heavily focused on the neural correlates of reading impairments, whereas spelling impairments have been largely neglected so far. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate brain structure and function of children with isolated spelling difficulties. Therefore, 31 children, aged ten to 15 years, were investigated by means of functional MRI and DTI. This study revealed that children with isolated spelling impairment exhibit a stronger right hemispheric activation compared to children with reading and spelling difficulties and controls, when engaged in an orthographic decision task, presumably reflecting a highly efficient serial grapheme-phoneme decoding compensation strategy.

Most of the remaining improved cases were produced by Modeller T

Most of the remaining improved cases were produced by Modeller. The most important factor is the existence of high-quality single-sequence input alignments. Because of the existence of models that are worse than any of the top single-template models, the average model quality does not improve significantly. However, by ranking models with a model quality assessment program such as ProQ, the average quality is improved by; similar to 5% in the CASP7 test set.”
“Previous VE-821 clinical trial studies focusing

on amphetamine (AMPH), methamphetamine (METH) and methylphenidate (MPH) neurotoxicity have almost exclusively been conducted in rodents during the light cycle, which is when most rodents sleep. There are virtually no studies that have simultaneously compared the effects of these three stimulants on body temperature and also determined serum stimulant levels PF-562271 concentration during exposure. The present study compared the effects of MPH, AMPH and METH treatment on body temperature and neurotoxicity during the waking (dark) cycle of the rat. This was done to more effectively replicate stimulant exposure in waking humans and to evaluate the relative risks of the three stimulants when taken inappropriately or non-therapeutically (e.g.,

abuse). Four subcutaneous injections (4x), at 2 h intervals, were used to administer each dose of the stimulants tested. Several equimolar doses for the three stimulants were chosen to produce plasma levels ranging from 3 times the highest therapeutic levels (no effect on body temperature) to those MG-132 nmr only attained by accidental overdose or intentional abuse in humans. Either 4 x 2.0 mg/kg,AMPH or 4 x 2.2 mg/kg METH administered during the waking cycle resulted in peak serum levels of between 1.5 and 2.5 mu M (4 to 5 times over maximum therapeutic levels of METH and AMPH) and produced lethal hyperthermia, 70% striatal dopamine depletions, and neurodegeneration in the cortex and thalamus. These results show that METH and AMPH are equipotent at producing lethal hyperthermia and neurotoxicity in laboratory animals during the wake cycle. Administration

of either 4 x 2.2 or 4 x 3.3 mg/kg METH during the sleep cycle produced lower peak body temperatures, minimal dopamine depletions and little neurodegeneration. These findings indicate that administration of the stimulant during the waking cycle compared to sleep cycle may significantly increase the potency of amphetamines to produce hyperthermia, neurotoxicity and lethality. In contrast, body temperature during the waking cycle was only significantly elevated by MPH at 4 x 22 mg/kg, and the serum levels producing this effect were 2-fold (approximately 4.5 mu M) greater on a molar basis than hyperthermic doses of AMPH and METH. Thus, AMPH and METH were equipotent on a mg/kg body weight basis at producing hyperthermia and neurotoxicity while MPH on a mg/kg body weight basis was approximately 10-fold less potent than AMPH and METH.

These findings have certain real-world implications, including ho

These findings have certain real-world implications, including how people make sense of mental disorders that are treated as real kinds.”
“In spite

of their Bafilomycin A1 clinical trial unusual orthographic and phonological form, acronyms (e.g., BBC, HIV, NATO) can become familiar to the reader, and their meaning can be accessed well enough that they are understood. The factors in semantic access for acronym stimuli were assessed using a word association task. Two analyses examined the time taken to generate a word association response to acronym cues. Responses were recorded more quickly to cues that elicited a large proportion of semantic responses, and those that were high in associative strength. Participants were shown to be faster to respond to cues

which were imageable or early acquired. Frequency was not a significant predictor of word association responses. Implications for theories of lexical organisation are discussed.”
“Adults evaluate others based on their speech, yet little is known of the developmental trajectory by which accent attitudes are acquired. Here we investigate the development of American children’s attitudes about Northern- and Southern-accented American English. Children in Illinois (the North) and Tennessee (the South) evaluated the social desirability, personality characteristics, and geographic origins of Northern- and Southern-accented PCI-32765 cost individuals. Five- to 6-year-old children in Illinois preferred the Northern-accented speakers as potential friends, yet did not demonstrate knowledge of any stereotypes

about the different groups; 5-6-year-old children in Tennessee did not show a preference towards either type of speaker. Nine- to 10-year-old children in both Illinois and Tennessee evaluated the Northern-accented individuals as sounding smarter and in charge, and the Southern-accented individuals as sounding nicer. Thus, older children endorse similar stereotypes to those observed in adulthood. These accent attitudes Defactinib cost develop in parallel across children in different regions and reflect both positive and negative assessments of a child’s own group.”
“A smile is visually highly salient and grabs attention automatically. We investigated how extrafoveally seen smiles influence the viewers’ perception of non-happy eyes in a face. A smiling mouth appeared in composite faces with incongruent non-happy (fearful, neutral, etc.) eyes, thus producing blended expressions, or it appeared in intact faces with genuine expressions. Attention to the eye region was spatially cued while foveal vision of the mouth was blocked by gaze-contingent masking. Participants judged whether the eyes were happy or not.

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “
“Lactob

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Lactobacilli should resist stress environments

in industry process and gastrointestinal tract before exerting their beneficial effects. To explore the possible stabilizers in probiotic products, prebiotic oligosaccharides were investigated.

We investigated the effect of four selected oligosaccharides on the survival of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum and L. acidophilus to simulated stress conditions. It was found that the tolerance of lactobacilli to simulated artificial gastrointestinal juice, heat treatment and phenol solution was obviously enhanced in fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) group. In addition, chito-oligosaccharides

SC79 cell line (COS), manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) and glucose also had positive effect compared with control group (without sugar).

Prebiotic oligosaccharides, especially XOS and FOS added in medium have protection function to lactobacilli in stress environments. The protection function of oligosaccharides may correlate with the bacteria growth, which was stimulated by these oligosaccharides.

Prebiotic oligosaccharides may be used as stabilizers in probiotic products.”
“Amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) deposition in brain is Pexidartinib important in the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (SAD) and A beta is produced through sequential cleaving of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta-secretase and gamma-secrease. Anterior pharynx-defective-1 (APH-1) is an important subunit of the gamma-secretase complex, and its expression level was associated with the activity of gamma-secrease. We hypothesized that alterations in the APH-1 promoter region might alter APH-1 expression and the activity of gamma-secrease, thus be involved in the SAD process. In the present study, we sequenced APH-1 a promoter region in 20 randomly selected controls and 20 SAD patients and detected two polymorphisms which

were -980C/G (rs3754048) and -21C/A (rs2275780). Then, we investigated genotypes and allele of these two polymorphisms as well as apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE epsilon 4) status in 256 SAD patients and 276 normal controls with restriction JIB04 research buy fragment length polymorphisms analysis and sequencing. Results showed the GG genotype and G allele of -980C/G polymorphism were more frequent in the SAD group than that in the controls not only in the whole subjects (genotype P = 0.038, allele P = 0.01 respectively) but also in the APOE epsilon 4 + subjects (genotype P = 0.048, allele P = 0.016 respectively). There was no statistical difference between SAD group and controls regarding to the frequency of alleles and genotypes of -21C/A whenever before or after stratification by APOE epsilon 4.

The identification of components involved in plasmodesmal structu

The identification of components involved in plasmodesmal structure and associated signaling molecules is now yielding novel insights into the evolution and function of PD in mediating the trafficking of non-cell-autonomous information macromolecules. Important future challenges are to build a detailed model for the plasmodesmal supramolecular complex and to further elucidate the molecular and cellular aspects of this novel

plant cell-to-cell communication pathway.”
“Environmental or occupational exposure to high levels of manganese (Mn) can lead to manganism, a symptomatic neuro-degenerative disorder similar AZD5153 manufacturer to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. The underlying mechanism of Mn neurotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the primary toxicological events associated with MnCl2 toxicity in rat PC12 cells using whole genome cDNA microarray, RT-PCR, Western blot and functional

studies. The results show that a sub-lethal dose range (38-300 mu M MnCl2) initiated slight metabolic stress evidenced by heightened glycolytic rate and induction of enolase/aldolase-gene expression. The largest shift observed in the transcriptome was MnCl2 induction of hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1) [7.7 fold, p < 0.001], which was further corroborated by RT-PCR and Western blot studies. Concentrations in excess of 300 mu M corresponded to dose dependent loss of cell viability which was associated with enhanced Selleck WZB117 production of H2O2 concomitant to elevation of gene expression for diverse antioxidant enzymes; biliverdin reductase, arsenite inducible RNA associated protein, dithiolethione-inducible gene-1 (DIG-1) and thioredoxin reductase 1. Moreover, Mn initiated significant reduction of gene expression of mitochondrial glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (GCDH), an enzyme involved with glutaric acidemia, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation

and striatal degeneration observed in association with severe dystonic-dyskinetic movement disorder. Future research will be required to elucidate a defined role for HO-1 and GCDH in Mn toxicity. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Aim: The MK5108 chemical structure occurrence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in the environment of turkey farms in the Czech Republic were studied.

Methods and Results: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates were found on 8 (20%) of 40 turkey farms surveyed. A total of 200 environmental smears were examined, and a total of 25 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated. These isolates were analysed using XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and divided into nine pulsotypes. Most of the isolates harboured the gene bla(SHV-12) on a 40-kb plasmid of the IncFII group with an identical EcoRV restriction profile. Indistinguishable or clonally related SHV-12-producing isolates belonging to the same pulsotypes were found at some unrelated farms.

Conclusions: Widespread occurrence of ESBL-producing E.

(C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Inc “
“BACKGROUND: Major extr

(C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“BACKGROUND: Major extracranial injury (MEI) is common in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, but the effect on outcome is controversial.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic value of MEI on mortality after TBI in an individual patient data meta-analysis of 3 observational TBI studies (International Mission on Prognosis and Clinical Trial Design in TBI [IMPACT]), a

randomized controlled trial (Corticosteroid Dinaciclib molecular weight Randomization After Significant Head Injury [CRASH]), and a trauma registry (Trauma Audit and Research Network [TARN]).

METHODS: MEI (extracranial injury with an Abbreviated Injury Scale >= 3 or requiring hospital admission) was related to mortality with logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, Glasgow Coma Scale motor score, and pupil reactivity and stratified by TBI severity. We pooled odds ratios (ORs) with random-effects meta-analysis.

RESULTS: We included 39 274 patients. Mortality was 25%, and 32% had MEI. MEI was a strong predictor for mortality in TARN, with adjusted odds ratios of 2.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.44-3.23) in mild, 2.18 (95% CI, 1.80-2.65) in moderate, and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.95-2.35) in severe TBI patients. The prognostic effect was smaller in IMPACT and CRASH, with pooled adjusted odds ratios of 2.14 (95% CI, 0.93-4.91)

in mild, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.14-1.85) in moderate, and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.03-1.55) in severe TBI. When ICG-001 research buy patients who died within 6 hours after injury were excluded from TARN, the effect of MEI was comparable with IMPACT and CRASH.

CONCLUSION: MEI is an important prognostic factor for mortality in TBI patients. However, the effect varies by population, which explains the controversy in the literature. The strength of the effect is smaller in patients with more severe brain injury and depends on time of inclusion

in a study.”
“Physician-industry collaboration has led to a diverse array of therapeutic advancements that have benefitted a broad spectrum of patient populations. Evolving regulations, both institutional and governmental, aiming to govern interactions between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers have become increasingly prevalent. Emerging www.selleck.cn/products/GDC-0941.html data suggest that restrictions on physician-industry collaboration have the potential to harm patient care by degrading innovation and stifling medical education. The following article reviews the effects of legislation on medical innovation as well as the impact on continuing medical education. (J Vasc Surg 2011;54:12S-4S.)”
“mRNA localization and regulated translation provide a means of spatially restricting gene expression within each of the thousands of subcellular compartments made by a neuron, thereby vastly increasing the computational capacity of the brain.

In both studies, poor discriminators showed no ear-advantage, and

In both studies, poor discriminators showed no ear-advantage, and in Study 2, exhibited no differential sensitivity of

the ears to noise. We conclude that these data reveal a context and ability-dependent asymmetry in processing temporal information in non-speech sounds. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“CCN1 is a matricellular protein that activates many genes related to wound healing and tissue remodeling in fibroblasts, but its effect on epithelial cells remains unclear. This study examined the role of CCN1 in epithelial wound healing using rat gastric epithelial cells XAV-939 order and rat stomach ulcer as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively. We found that CCN1 expression is highly upregulated in the epithelial cells selleck kinase inhibitor adjacent to a wound and remains high until the wound is healed. Upregulation of CCN1 activates a transient epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the epithelial cells at the migrating front and drives wound closure. Once the wound is healed, these epithelial cells and their progeny can resume their original epithelial phenotype. We also found that CCN1-induced E-cadherin loss is not due to transcriptional regulation but rather protein degradation due to the collapse of adherens junctions, which is contributed by beta-catenin translocation. CCN1-activated integrin-linked kinase mediates this

process. Finally, our in vivo study showed that locally neutralizing CCN1 drastically impairs wound closure, whereas local injection of recombinant CCN1 protein induces

expression of vimentin and smooth muscle a-actin in normal gastric mucosal epithelial cells and accelerates re-epithelialization during ulcer healing. In conclusion, our study indicates that CCN1 can induce reversible epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and this feature may have great value for clinical wound healing. Laboratory Investigation (2010) 90, 1140-1151; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2010.101; published online 10 May 2010″
“Causal understanding of physical events is culturally universal. AZD7762 nmr However, behavioral studies suggest that how we perceive causality is culturally sensitive, with East Asian culture emphasizing contextual factors and Western culture emphasizing dispositional factors guiding causal relationships. The present study investigated potential neural substrates of the cultural difference in causal attribution of physical events. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Experiment 1 scanned Chinese subjects during causality or motion direction judgments when viewing animations of object collisions and identified a causal-attribution related neural circuit consisting of the medial/lateral prefrontal cortex, left parietal/temporal cortex, and cerebellum.

The inhibition of iNOS eliminated the cytokine-induced enhancemen

The inhibition of iNOS eliminated the cytokine-induced enhancement of glutamate release, and treatment with a NO donor, even in the absence of cytokines, increased glutamate release. Thus, cytokines enhance glutamate release, and this enhancement is mediated by NO. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland

Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) Vpx is required for nuclear translocation of the viral preintegration complex (PIC) in quiescent cells. In order to decipher the mechanism of action of Vpx, a cDNA library was screened with the yeast two-hybrid assay, resulting GW3965 in vivo in the identification of heat shock protein 40, Hsp40/DnaJB6, as a Vpx-interactive protein. Interaction with Vpx was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays. Overexpression of Hsp40/DnaJB6 enhanced Vpx nuclear import, whereas overexpression of a nuclear localization mutant of Hsp40/DnaJB6 (H31Q) or down-regulation of Hsp40/DnaJB6 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the nuclear import of Vpx. Hsp40/DnaJB6 competed with the Pr55(Gag) precursor protein for the binding of Vpx and incorporation into virus-like particles. Overexpression of Hsp40/DnaJB6 promoted viral PIC nuclear import, whereas siRNA down-regulation of

Hsp40/DnaJB6 inhibited PIC nuclear import. These results demonstrate a role for Hsp40/DnaJB6 in the regulation of HIV-2 PIC nuclear transport.”
“Catalase (CAT) -262 C/T promoter (rs1001 179), cathepsin D (CTSD) exon 2 (rs 1757 1), and apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphisms were studied in 242 patients with sporadic Selinexor price Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 421 unrelated age-, sex-, and ethnically matched control subjects from Apulia (Southern Italy). No statistically significant differences Silmitasertib datasheet in CAT rs1001179 and CTSD rs17571 genotype and allele distribution between AD cases and healthy controls were observed for the whole AD sample, and when AD group was categorized by age at onset in early- and late-onset AD subsets. Furthermore, we did not find any statistically

significant differences in rates between CAT rs] 001179 and CTSD rs17571 genotypes and AD controlling for APOE e4 allele status. Our data, at present, do not support a role of two gene polymorphisms of the short arm of the chromosome 11, the CAT rs 1001179 and CTSD rs] 7571, as a possible susceptibility factors for sporadic AD. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The structural context of a CD4(+) T-cell epitope is known to influence immunodominance at the level of antigen processing, but general rules have not emerged. Dominant epitopes of influenza virus hemagglutinin are found to be localized to the C-terminal Hanks of conformationally stable segments identified by low crystallographic B-factors or high COREX residue stabilities. The bias toward C-terminal flanks is distinctive for antigens from the influenza virus.

We report the identification of a human monoclonal Fab (e137) abl

We report the identification of a human monoclonal Fab (e137) able to bind the HCV E2 glycoprotein of all HCV genotypes but genotype 5. The results of antibody competition assays and testing the reactivity to alanine

mutant E2 proteins confirmed that the e137 epitope includes residues (T416, W420, W529, G530, and D535) highly conserved across all HCV genotypes. Fab e137 neutralized HCV pseudoparticles CAL-101 bearing genotype la, 1b, and 4 E1-E2 proteins and to a lesser extent, genotype 2b. Fab e137 was also able to inhibit cell culture-grown HCV (genotype 2a). These data indicate that broadly cross-reacting and cross-neutralizing antibodies are generated during HCV infection.”
“Previous studies have reported mainly on contralesional somatosensory and motor function after hemispherectomy. So far, ipsilesional Acalabrutinib research buy impairments have received little attention even though these have been reported in patients with less extensive lesions.

In the current study we assessed ipsilesional and contralesional sensorimotor function in a group of 12 patients with hemispherectomy. In addition, we focused on differences between distal and proximal function and investigated several factors that may have contributed to individual differences between patients. The tests included tapping, force production, tactile double simultaneous stimulation, pressure sensitivity, passive joint movement sense and sensitivity to hot and cold.

Ipsilesional impairments were found on all tests, except passive joint movement sense. Unexpectedly, no significant ipsilateral distal-proximal gradient was found for any of the measures. Both the removal of the diseased cerebral hemisphere and possible changes to the remaining brain structures may have affected ipsilesional sensorimotor function.

Contralesional performance was impaired on all tests except for passive joint movement in the

shoulder. The contralesional AR-13324 order impairments were characterized by a distal-proximal gradient measured on all tests, except that of sensitivity to hot and cold. Distal function was always most impaired. The difference between distal and proximal motor function is in agreement with the established concepts of the motor pathways, with the motoneurons innervating proximal muscles receiving bilateral cortical and subcortical input.

Age at onset of original brain damage correlated significantly with passive joint movement sense. Patients with known abnormalities to the remaining brain structures performed inferior on the tapping test only. No effect was found of the hemispheric side of removal. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.