We report an autopsy case of HHV6-induced encephalomyelitis that

We report an autopsy case of HHV6-induced encephalomyelitis that developed after BMT. The patient was a 61-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia, who developed disorientation

and short-term memory disturbance 35 days after allogenic BMT. MRI demonstrated T1-weighted high-signal intensity lesions in the medial temporal lobe and thalamus, and PCR of the CSF disclosed an increase in the copy numbers of the HHV6 genome. The patient died after a clinical course of 6 months, and at autopsy the brain showed remarkable atrophy of the hippocampus. Histopathologically, neuronal loss with astrocytosis and patchy necrosis with infiltration of macrophages were found predominantly in the hippocampus, Hedgehog antagonist amygdala, mamillary body, claustrum, and thalamus. Perivascular and intraparenchymal lymphocytic infiltration was slight.

Similar lesions were also scattered in the cerebral neocortex, midbrain, pontine base, cerebellar white matter, and lumbar cord. In some of these lesions, axons were relatively preserved in comparison with myelin sheaths. Significant increase in the copy numbers of the HHV6 genome was demonstrated in the postmortem brain tissue by PCR. Neuropathological features of the present case were similar to those described in previously reported cases, but the distribution of lesions was more widespread. Demyelination was supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of some of the lesions. this website
“CADASIL is a generalized angiopathy caused by mutations in NOTCH 3 gene leading to degeneration and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in small arteries and arterioles. Since the receptor protein encoded by NOTCH 3 gene is expressed not only on VSMC but Protein kinase N1 also on pericytes, pericytes and capillary vessels can be damaged by CADASIL. To check this hypothesis

we examined microvessels in autopsy brains and skin-muscle biopsies of CADASIL patients. We found degeneration and loss of pericytes in capillary vessels. Pericytes were shrunken and their cytoplasm contained numerous vacuoles, big vesicular structures and complexes of enlarged pathological mitochondria. Degenerative changes were also observed within endothelial-pericytic connections, especially within peg-and-socket junctions. Nearby pericyte cell membranes or inside infoldings, deposits of granular osmiophilic material (GOM) were usually seen. In the affected capillaries endothelial cells revealed features of degeneration, selective death or swelling, leading to narrowing or occlusion of the capillary lumen. Our findings indicate that in CADASIL not only VSMC but also pericytes are severely damaged. Pericyte involvement in CADASIL can result in increased permeability of capillary vessels and disturbances in cerebral microcirculation, leading to white matter injury.

Tolerosomes are physiologically produced as a response to dietary

Tolerosomes are physiologically produced as a response to dietary peptides; it is already known that enterocytes posses the molecular mechanisms for processing peptides in a similar manner to lymphocytes. The fate of tolerosomes is not precisely known, but it seems that they merge with intestinal dendritic cells, conveying to them the information that orally administered peptides must be interpreted as tolerogens. SEA can stimulate this mechanism, find more thus favoring the development of tolerance to peptides/proteins administered subsequently via the oral route. This characteristic of SEA might be useful in therapy for regulating immune responses. The present

paper reviews the current status of research regarding the impact of SEA on the enteric immune system and its potential use in the treatment of allergic and autoimmune diseases. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A belongs to the family of staphylococcal enterotoxins, a group of molecules which have drawn the attention of researchers in the field of immunity for over 30 years. The first SE discovered was SEA, in 1966,

followed by another eight (B-E, G-J). The original observations were connected with the ability of these enterotoxins to induce toxic shock when food contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus strains was ingested (1). From the beginning, it was observed that SEs are active in very small amounts (micrograms), and are very stable. Generally, PD-L1 mutation foods contaminated by them retain their toxicity after boiling or freezing. Even in the digestive tract, these proteins are not degraded by local proteases and can therefore still exert their specific actions (2). In the case of SEA, at approximately 4 hr after the ingestion of less than 1 μg, symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps appear (3). This is accompanied

by an inflammatory infiltrate abundant in PMNs in the lamina propria and epithelium of the intestinal wall. PMNs release large quantities of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, Unoprostone and intestinal neuropeptides including substance P, all of which contribute to the clinical picture (4). The proof for the inflammatory etiology of the symptom of emesis in toxic shock is that this symptom is reversed by the administration of antihistamines. In some animal models, it has been proved that SEA also induces secretion of monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1 (5), IL-6 and IL-8 by the intestinal myofibroblasts (6). Under the influence of SEA, the serotonin concentration increases in the intestinal wall, stimulating local vagal receptors, an absolutely necessary step in the development of the gastrointestinal symptoms (7). In addition to their toxic activity, SEs stimulate adaptive immunity as SAs, which means that the number of T cells activated by these toxins is much greater than in the case of normal antigens.

After washing, 5 × 104–1 × 105 NK T cell hybridomas were cultured

After washing, 5 × 104–1 × 105 NK T cell hybridomas were cultured in the plate for 16–20 h, and IL-2 in the supernatant was measured by ELISA (BD PharMingen, San Diego, CA, USA). Liver tissues were

collected immediately from animals upon killing, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, cut into 4-μm sections, deparaffinized, stained with haematoxylin Doxorubicin solubility dmso and eosin (H&E) and evaluated using light microscopy [36]. Scoring of liver inflammation was performed on coded H&E-stained sections of liver using a set of three indices by a ‘blinded’ pathologist (K.T.); indices including degrees of portal inflammation, parenchymal inflammation and bile duct damage were scored as: 0 = normal, no inflammation (or bile duct damage); 1 = minimal inflammation (or bile duct damage); 2 = mild inflammation (or bile duct damage); 3 = moderate inflammation (or bile duct damage); and 4 = severe inflammation (or bile duct damage). To examine the bile duct pathology, immunochemical staining was performed with a rabbit polyclonal antibody for cytokeratin

(CK) 19, which is an established marker Galunisertib supplier of biliary epithelial cells. Liver sections were immunostained using standard microwave protocol, as described previously [37]. In brief, after deparaffinization and microwave heating for antigen retrieval, rabbit polyclonal antibody against CK19 (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO, USA) was applied and incubated under intermittent microwave irradiation. After rinsing with TBS, Envision-peroxidase for rabbit polyclonal antibodies (Dako, Carpenteria, CA, USA) was applied and incubated under intermittent microwave treatment. As a substrate of peroxidase, 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB; Vector, Burlingame, CA, USA) was applied for 5 min. Heamatoxylin was used as a counter-stain. Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (s.e.m.). over Two-sample comparisons were analysed using the two-tailed unpaired t-test.

The correlation between two parameters was analysed using Spearman’s correlation method. A value of P < 0·05 was considered statistically significant. As shown in Fig. 2a, the levels of anti-PDC-E2, measured as OD values in ELISA using 1:500 diluted serum samples, were significantly higher (P < 0·001) in E. coli-infected mice 4–12 weeks after bacterium infection when compared with the N. aro-infected mice and the uninfected control group. The level of anti-PDC-E2 peaked at 4 weeks after E. coli infection and then gradually decreased to the same level as that of N. aro-infected mice. Anti-PDC-E2 and anti-OGDC-E2 antibodies were detected in the serum of E. coli-infected mice but not N. aro-infected mice, while anti-BCOADC-E2 antibodies were not detected in either group (Fig. 2b). Next we validated the specificity of AMA by immunoblotting, which confirmed the presence of anti PDC-E2 antibodies in both E. coli- and N. aro-infected mice but not in control mice (Fig. 2c).

This paper was supported by grants from the Creative Research Gro

This paper was supported by grants from the Creative Research Group Fund of the National Foundation Committee of Natural Sciences of China (81270812). “
“To describe renal replacement therapy (RRT) prescribing practices in Malaysian intensive care units (ICU), and compare this with previously published data from other regions. A survey was sent to physicians

responsible for prescribing RRT in major ICU throughout Malaysia. The questionnaire sought information on the physicians’ background, and detailed information regarding RRT settings. Nineteen physicians from 24 sites throughout Malaysia Gefitinib purchase responded to the survey (response rate 79.2%). Sixteen respondents were intensivists (84%), 2 were anaesthetists (11%) and one was a nephrologist (5%). The majority (58%) used continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) as the treatment of choice for acute selleck chemicals kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. RRT prescription was predominantly practitioner-dependent (63%), while 37% reported use of a dedicated protocol. The mean blood flow rate and effluent flow rate used for continuous RRT (CRRT) were 188.9 ± 28.9 mL/min and 30.6 ± 4.7 mL/kg/h respectively. Replacement fluid solutions containing both lactate and bicarbonate were commonly used during CRRT, applied both pre- and post-dilution.

CRRT was the first-choice modality used to treat AKI in critically ill patients. CVVH was the most common CRRT technique used, while other RRT modalities were used less frequently. Overall, RRT practices were similar to those observed in other regions, although the modality and settings used were slightly different, likely due to local availability. “
“Mesenchymal stem cells are a heterogeneous

population of fibroblast-like stromal cells that have been isolated from the bone marrow and a number of organs and tissues including the kidney. They have multipotent and self-renewing properties and can differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage. Following their administration in vivo, mesenchymal cAMP stem cells migrate to damaged kidney tissue where they produce an array of anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that can alter the course of injury. Mesenchymal stem cells are thought to elicit repair through paracrine and/or endocrine mechanisms that modulate the immune response resulting in tissue repair and cellular replacement. This review will discuss the features of mesenchymal stem cells and the factors they release that protect against kidney injury; the mechanisms of homing and engraftment to sites of inflammation; and further elucidate the immunomodulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells and their ability to alter macrophage phenotype in a setting of kidney damage and repair. Understanding the process of endogenous kidney regeneration is important for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

1) This process begins in the nucleolus and the preribosomal uni

1). This process begins in the nucleolus and the preribosomal units are exported into the cytoplasm for final steps in the maturation of

ribosomes [8]. The exact functions of many of these proteins remain unknown. Some ribosomal proteins are now known to have extraribosomal functions; for example, the SBDS protein has a role in stabilizing the mitotic spindle. Immunological abnormalities in ribosomopathies may therefore provide clues as to how ribosomal proteins can shape the check details immune system. According to internationally accepted criteria, the diagnosis of CVID remains one of exclusion. The currently identified four genetic mutations (ICOS, CD19, TACI, BAFFR) account for fewer than a fifth of cases, with no consensus on which genetic testing should be undertaken in most cases [1]. The current European Society of Immunodeficiency (ESID)/Pan-American Group for Immunodeficiency (PAGID) criteria for KU-57788 solubility dmso CVID include: ‘probable’ CVID in those aged > 2 years with low immunoglobulin (Ig)G and another low isotype level (IgA or IgM)

with absent vaccine responses; and ‘possible’ CVID in those with low immunoglobulin of any isotype with absent vaccine responses where other causes of hypogammaglobulinaemia have been excluded [2]. Additional similarities with ribosomopathies and CVID patients include heterogeneous presentations with T cell defects, cytopenias and malignancies [1–3]. The initial description of DBA was of a congenital erythroblastopenia characterized by an early arrest of pre-erythroblast differentiation. The first

report of loss-of-function mutations in a gene coding for a ribosomal protein in this disease (non-sense, missense, frameshift, splice-site, complete deletion of one RPS19 allele) generated enormous interest in the clinical effects of disordered ribosome biosynthesis [8,9]. Mutations in the RPS19 gene prevent assembly of the 40S ribosomal subunit, but account for only 25% of DBA patients [9]. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of failure of antibody production in DBA. We present our clinical experience with the report of the first case of DBA who subsequently developed antibody deficiency, consistent second with a new diagnosis of CVID, with complications of bronchiectasis and managed on immunoglobulin therapy. The previous case of CVID with mutation in the SBDS gene of SDS has been discussed briefly with additional data, as a detailed report was published in a previous issue of this Journal [10]. In the final part of this perspective paper, we review the immunological abnormalities beginning to emerge in ribosomopathy syndromes. Clinical synopsis including investigations.  A 22-year-old female presented with bronchiectasis and hypogammaglobulinemia. DBA had been diagnosed at 1 year of age and required treatment with corticosteroids and blood transfusions until the age of 6 years.

Conversely, IC-loaded red cells have been reported to interact wi

Conversely, IC-loaded red cells have been reported to interact with macrophages leading to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 [12]. The level of expression of CR1 on red cells is influenced by a variety of factors. There are known quantitative polymorphisms (H and L) that can result in

low (LL), medium (HL) or high (HH) expression [5]. In addition, the level of CR1 is known to decline with the age of red cells [13,14] and can vary with the age of the host [15], as well as his/her health status [16]. For instance, individuals with certain conditions leading to formation of ICs such as malaria or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) tend to have lower CR1 on their red cells [15–19]. The variability in the level of red cell CR1 expression suggests that individuals at Doxorubicin mouse either end of the expression spectrum may suffer deleterious consequences of IC-mediated diseases. Low expressors may be less equipped to remove ICs from circulation, leading to IC deposition in tissues and the consequent inflammatory response. Conversely, high expressors may trap ICs on red cells too effectively which, under certain circumstances such as in the slow circulation of the spleen or in congested capillaries of malaria-infected individuals, may cross-link

Fcγ receptors on monocyte/macrophages leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines [9–11,20]. To investigate the dual role of red cell CR1 on modulating the IC-mediated production of tumour necrosis factor Veliparib clinical trial (TNF)-α by macrophages and how this is affected by the CR1 expression level, we selected individuals with low, medium and high red cell CR1 expression. We then measured the ability of their red cells to enhance or inhibit TNF-α production

by macrophages in vitro in the presence ICs. This study was part of a larger cross-sectional survey to study the relationship between red cell complement regulatory protein expression, age and C3b deposition [21]. It was approved by and executed in accordance with guidelines of the Human Use Research Committee of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and of the Kenya National Ethics Review Committee, Kenya Medical Research Institute. Informed consent was obtained Bacterial neuraminidase from each participant or from the parent or guardian of participants under 18 years of age. The study was carried out in Kombewa Division, a malaria holoendemic region of the Lake Victoria basin in western Kenya, where most individuals are of the Luo ethnic group. The eligibility criteria and screening procedures were detailed previously [21]. Briefly, any person resident in the study area, male or female, aged 45 years or younger was eligible to participate in the study. Only healthy, malaria-negative individuals, as confirmed by a standardized physical examination and thick and thin Giemsa-stained blood smears, served as blood donors.

We tried to avoid this phenomenon with the use of whole blood “<

We tried to avoid this phenomenon with the use of whole blood. “
“The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a widely used animal model for the study of human diabetes. Before the start of lymphocytic insulitis, DC accumulation around islets of Langerhans is a hallmark for autoimmune diabetes development in this model. Previous experiments indicated that an inflammatory influx of these DCs in the pancreas is less plausible. Here, we investigated whether the pancreas contains DC precursors and whether these precursors contribute to DC accumulation in the NOD pancreas. Fetal pancreases of NOD and control mice were isolated followed by FACS using ER-MP58, Ly6G, CD11b CH5424802 purchase and Ly6C. Sorted fetal pancreatic ER-MP58+ cells were cultured

with GM-CSF and tested for DC markers and antigen processing.

CFSE labeling and Ki-67 staining were used to determine cell proliferation in cultures and tissues. Ly6Chi and Ly6Clow precursors were present in fetal pancreases of NOD and control mice. These precursors developed into CD11c+MHCII+CD86+ DCs capable of processing DQ-OVA. ER-MP58+ cells in the embryonic and pre-diabetic NOD pancreas had a higher proliferation capacity. Our observations selleck inhibitor support a novel concept that pre-diabetic DC accumulation in the NOD pancreas is due to aberrant enhanced proliferation of local precursors, rather than to aberrant “inflammatory infiltration” from the circulation. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is used as a spontaneous model to study the development of type 1 diabetes 1. Lymphocytes accumulate around and in the islets of Langerhans in NOD mice from around 6 weeks of age onwards, which results in the destruction of β-cells followed by a decrease in insulin production leading to diabetes. Prior to T- and B-cell accumulation the number of DCs increases in the pancreas and concentrates

around the islets (from the age of 5 weeks onwards) 2, 3. DCs are potent APCs capable of stimulating both naïve and memory T cells 4. The observation that DCs are the first immune cells to increase in number in the NOD pancreas points to a crucial role for DCs in the initiation of the islet autoimmune reaction. Such a role was recently proven by the demonstration that a temporal depletion of DCs totally abrogated the development of much insulitis and diabetes in the NOD mouse model 5. Early studies have shown that BM precursors give rise to monocytes in blood, which circulate for a few days before they migrate into tissue where they develop into different types of DCs and macrophages. Blood monocytes can be subdivided into at least two subsets based on their Ly6C expression: classical and nonclassical monocytes. The classical monocytes, which are Ly6Chi, are selectively recruited to inflamed tissues and lymph nodes and differentiate into inflammatory DCs 6. The nonclassical monocytes, which are Ly6Clow, patrol the endothelium of the blood vessels and are required for rapid tissue invasion at the site of an infection 7.

92 Proteinuria has previously been regarded as a marker of glomer

92 Proteinuria has previously been regarded as a marker of glomerular dysfunction and was seen as both associative and a central risk factor for progression of renal impairment. However, it is known that proteinuria can independently Carfilzomib concentration predict cardiovascular disease96 and the question arises as to whether reduction in proteinuria could influence this prospectively. From observational data, it is also known that 25-OHD status in the CKD population correlates negatively with urinary protein loss.97,98 Podocytes are known to exhibit various components of the vitamin D machinery (CYP27B1 enzyme and the VDR) and in the db/db animal model of type II diabetes

(induced with a leptin receptor anomaly), a failure to develop progressive diabetic nephropathy and albuminuria is associated with upregulation of these components, in addition to increased glomerular vitamin D binding protein concentrations and serum calcitriol.99 Other evidence of podocyte response to vitamin D was demonstrated by Piecha’s group, who used 1,25-OHD in subtotally nephrectomized rats and showed

a significant reduction in proteinuria which was associated with lower podocyte hypertrophy and foot process fusion compared with controls.100 GSK3235025 It should be noted that this result was reproducible with the use of the experimental calcimimetic R-568, independent of serum calcium concentrations, but both resulted in significant parathyroid hormone suppression.100 Xiao et al. studied the effect of 1,25-OHD on podocyte apoptosis, and after injection with a known apoptotic inducer (Puromycin Aminonucleoside) compared podocyte number and apoptosis between groups. Those treated with 1,25-OHD exhibited lower cellular apoptosis and increased cell number, which correlated with potentiated downstream phosphorylation of Akt following phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) activation, a critical signalling pathway Liothyronine Sodium for podocyte survival.101 Between podocytes there exists a slit-diaphragm composed of

specific proteins, that complex and act as an important macromolecule barrier. One of the first proteins identified in the slit diaphragm, nephrin, is thought to have a key regulatory role in its structure and function and in various animal and biological models, interruption of this protein is associated with heavy proteinuria.102 In a recent study by Yamauchi et al. the nephrin gene was fused to a detectable enzymatic marker and transfected into an experimental immortal podocyte cell line which was then exposed to various substances to try and establish factors that affected gene transcription. They found pro-inflammatory moieties IL-1β and TNFα caused downregulation whereas stimulation with 1,25-OHD caused an almost threefold increase in the expression of nephrin compared with control.

The disease is characterized by diarrhoea and abdominal pain that

The disease is characterized by diarrhoea and abdominal pain that normally last several days but infection can be chronic and life-threatening in immunocompromised hosts. Human illness predominantly involves two parasite species, C. hominis that is occasionally found in non-human hosts and C. parvum that infects many mammalian host species and is an important zoonotic pathogen [1]. Disease in livestock such as cattle and sheep occurs only during the neonatal period but immunocompetent humans may develop

symptoms at any age [2]. The entire DNA Damage inhibitor asexual and sexual development of Cryptosporidium takes place in epithelial cells and infection is transmitted faecal-orally by oocysts that contain four sporozoites. During host cell invasion sporozoites and merozoites do not enter the cytoplasm; instead the adjacent epithelial membrane moves to encapsulate the zoite, providing an epicellular niche for parasite development [3]. It is not known if this unusual extracytoplasmic location partially protects the parasite

from immunological attack. Parasite antigens have been shown to be expressed in the segment of host cell membrane surrounding the parasite and in the parasitophorous vacuole membrane [4]. Most of the Selleck BAY 57-1293 available knowledge of host adaptive immune responses comes from studies with mice infected with C. parvum (mice are refractory to infection with C. hominis). However, there is some understanding of mechanisms of adaptive immunity against cryptosporidia in humans and cattle. In adult mice lacking CD4+ T cells C. parvum infection is chronic and eventually causes morbidity and death [5]. For elimination of infection in humans, CD4+ T cells

are also likely to be necessary since late stage AIDS patients with low CD4+ T cell numbers commonly experience cryptosporidial infection that is chronic, spreads to extraintestinal sites (e.g. bile ducts or pancreas) and is eventually fatal [6]. The introduction of antiretroviral drugs that restore Low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase the CD4+ T cell population has reduced the incidence of cryptosporidial infection in HIV-infected individuals [7]. Some studies with mice have suggested that CD8+ T cells or B cells may have roles in resistance but neither cell type appears to be essential for elimination of infection [5, 8, 9]. MHC Class I-dependent human CD8+ T cells cytotoxic for intestinal epithelial cells infected with C. parvum have been developed in vitro [10] but there have been no reports showing the presence of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells in vivo. In mice, humans and cattle, development of immunity has been associated with elevated expression of the Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12 and, in mice, IL-18 [8, 11, 12]. Mice deficient in these cytokines have been shown to have increased susceptibility to infection and in some reports IFN-γ−/− mice developed fatal infections [12, 13].

The prevalence of IgE sensitisation to A simplex was 2 0%, 2 2%

The prevalence of IgE sensitisation to A. simplex was 2.0%, 2.2% and 6.6% in blood donors, the unsorted and Phadiatop® positive serum groups respectively. A considerable degree of cross-sensitisation to shrimp and HDM is further suggested. Unspecific binding due to high total IgE or by binding to CCDs seemed to play a minor role. The prevalence of IgE sensitisation to A. simplex appears to be lower in a Norwegian population than in other high fish consuming countries, but might still be overestimated JQ1 clinical trial due to cross-sensitisation.

“Macrophages respond to their microenvironment and develop polarized functions critical for orchestrating appropriate inflammatory responses. Classical (M1) activation eliminates pathogens while alternative

(M2) activation promotes regulation and repair. M1 macrophage activation is strongly associated with suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) expression in vitro, but the functional consequences of this are unclear and the role of SOCS3 in M1-macrophage polarization in vivo remains controversial. To address these questions, we defined the characteristics and function of SOCS3-expressing macrophages in vivo and identified potential mechanisms of SOCS3 action. Macrophages infiltrating inflamed glomeruli in a CT99021 purchase model of acute nephritis show significant up-regulation of SOCS3 that co-localizes with the M1-activation marker, inducible nitric oxide synthase. Numbers of SOCS3hi-expressing, but not SOCS1hi-expressing, macrophages correlate strongly with the severity of renal injury, supporting Celastrol their inflammatory role in vivo. Adoptive transfer of SOCS3-short interfering RNA-silenced macrophages into a peritonitis model demonstrated the importance of SOCS3 in driving production

of pro-inflammatory IL-6 and nitric oxide, while curtailing expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and SOCS1. SOCS3-induced pro-inflammatory effects were due, at least in part, to its role in controlling activation and nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-κB and activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. We show for the first time that SOCS3 also directs the functions of human monocyte-derived macrophages, including efficient M1-induced cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, IL-12), attenuated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activity and ability of antigen-loaded macrophages to drive T-cell responses. Hence, M1-associated SOCS3 was a positive regulator of pro-inflammatory responses in our rodent models and up-regulated SOCS3 is essential for effective M1-macrophage activation and function in human macrophages. “
“Collectins contribute to host defence through interactions with glycoconjugates on pathogen surfaces.