In many fast-growing enterobacteria, such as Neisseria gonorrhoea

In many fast-growing enterobacteria, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, iron-regulated sRNAs respond by a significant increase of transcription within the first hour of iron starvation (Ducey et al., 2009). Contrary to N. gonorrhoeae, N. europaea is a relatively slow-growing microorganism with a doubling rate of 6–8 h under optimal conditions. Iron starvation decreases the rate of growth even further. During this prolonged growth, the bacterium may be able to scavenge available iron and decrease the levels of psRNA11 as it enters the

stationary phase. The previously observed ‘leaky transcription’ of NE0616, a Fur homologue in N. europaea, may also contribute to lower levels of psRNA11 in the fur:kanP mutant (N. Vajrala, pers. commun.). Further investigation will be necessary to elucidate the details of this pathway. There is no significant primary sequence or secondary structure similarity between RyhB and psRNA11, as there is no MG-132 research buy significant primary sequence or secondary structure similarity between RyhB and Nrrf, the RyhB functional homologue in N. meningitidis

(Mellin et al., 2007). The large number of small regulatory RNAs identified in bacteria in recent years show that there is relatively little sRNA primary sequence conservation between distant species and few sRNAs have identifiable homologues beyond closely related organisms. Still, recent systematic searches of bacterial genomes and selleck chemicals expression studies have greatly increased the number of known sRNAs (Sittka et al., 2008). Altogether, we identified 14 genes Thymidine kinase coding for psRNAs in N. europaea, and one previously unannotated

short open reading frame (ORF). Eight of these psRNAs, as well as the short ORF, were present at different levels under different conditions, as demonstrated by microarray analysis. We confirmed the expression of two of the psRNAs by mapping the 5′- and 3′-ends of the transcripts, and suggest that one of the psRNAs may be an iron-responsive sRNA that has a dual regulatory function and corresponded well with the computational predictions. Structural analysis using rnafold predicted distinct secondary structures consistent with that of sRNAs in other organisms. This is the first research that demonstrates the expression of sRNAs in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation Biocomplexity grant 0412711 to D.J.A. and the Oregon Agricultural Experimental Station. This work was also supported in part by the National Science Foundation grant No. MCB-0919808 to B.T. Fig. S1. Pairwise alignments and covarying residues evincing conserved RNA secondary structure are shown for 15 regions of the Nitrosomonas europaea genome predicted to contain sRNA genes. For each of the 15 regions, the pairwise alignment is shown. Above each alignment, the consensus secondary structure is shown in dot-parentheses notation. The co-varying residues are indicated by pairs of alphabetic characters below each alignment. N. europaea: Neur; N.

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