732, males r2= 0678) than fin height Gompertz age/length growth

732, males r2= 0.678) than fin height. Gompertz age/length growth curves were fitted to these individuals. Linear regressions were used to estimate total length for 34 individuals from laser-metrically estimated fin base length. Individuals were then assigned

one of three age categories. This system shows promise as a noninvasive way of measuring individuals, while allowing simultaneous photographic identification. The ability to age and measure individuals within a population is useful for a variety of reasons. Length estimation is important for examining growth (Clark et al. 2000), determining size class (Cubbage and Calambokidis 1987), subspecific status (Baker et al. 2002), different geographic forms (Perryman and Lynn 1993, Perryman and Westlake 1998, Jaquet 2006) and the extent of sexual size dimorphism (Ramos et al. 2002, Martin and Da Silva 2006). Age estimates are required for age-structured population models (Slooten and selleck Lad 1991, Cameron et al. 1999).

Age and size also determine maturity and influence reproductive success (Martin and Rothery 1993). It is difficult to calculate exact ages for marine mammals; however, a number of techniques are commonly used to provide an estimate of age. The standard procedure for estimating age in odontocetes and pinnipeds involves counting the incremental growth layers in tooth sections (Perrin and Myrick 1980, Myrick et al. 1984). This technique has been used on live animals but is highly invasive as it involves capture of the check details animal and extraction of a tooth (Arnbom et al. 1992, Childerhouse et al. 2004, Bell et al. 2005). Long-term photo-ID studies can also provide age data (Hamilton et al. 1998), but this requires intensive fieldwork over the study species’ lifetime and typically obtains a minimum age, unless the individual is marked as a calf (e.g., Kraus et al. 1986). Photogrammetry

is a well-established, noninvasive method for measuring individuals, both in terrestrial and marine environments (e.g., elephants, Loxondonta africana, Schrader et al. 2006; gorillas, Gorilla MCE公司 gorilla, Breuer et al. 2006; and northern bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus thynnus, Costa et al. 2006). Photogrammetric techniques are particularly useful as noninvasive field methods for marine mammals, as they do not require capture. There are two general approaches to photogrammetry, either stereo-photography or single camera photography. Stereo-photogrammetry uses a pair of overlapping images to create a 3-D optical model, in which scale is provided by the known distance between the cameras and the lens magnification (e.g., Ratnaswamy and Winn 1993, Dawson et al. 1995, Bräger and Chong 1999, Waite et al. 2007). Single camera photogrammetry requires either a known object in the image for scale (e.g., Best and Rüther 1992, Flamm et al. 2000) or a measurement of the range to the individual (e.g., Gordon 1991, Spitz et al. 2000, Jaquet 2006).

data) Based on these findings, sorafenib can be considered to be

data). Based on these findings, sorafenib can be considered to be more than just an anticancer drug. According to our current understanding, a variety of cytokines are involved in the pathological process of liver diseases, of which TGF-β is the most important inducer.3 Thus, studying TGF-β-induced EMT and apoptosis

in mouse hepatocytes is very important for the development of new and efficacious therapies for fibrosis, cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and other liver diseases. In the past decade, several antifibrotic strategies have been successfully established based on the blockade or elimination of latent TGF-β signaling at various transduction steps. Several gene therapy approaches using dominant-negative TGF-β receptors and BMP-7 have been developed to prevent fibrosis

in different tissues.22, 23 Similarly, ectopic overexpression of Smad7 in the hepatocytes STA-9090 price of transgenic mice was shown to attenuate TGF-β signaling and thereby improve CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.24 In addition to these protein-based Selleck GSK 3 inhibitor therapies, small molecules and biological agents that act on this signaling cascade have shown strong therapeutic potential in clinical settings. However, efficient and well-tolerated antifibrotic drugs are currently lacking. The present study provides a simple and efficient strategy for high-throughput screening of chemicals that interfere with TGF-β signaling. Aside from sorafenib, we have identified several small compounds that inhibit TGF-β signaling using this unbiased cellular screening model. Based on their down-regulation of TGF-β signaling, beneficial effects of these candidates on organ fibrosis could be expected. This expectation has been partially supported by in vivo animal studies showing medchemexpress antifibrotic effects on

experimental hepatic, renal, and pulmonary fibrosis (unpubl. data). A more detailed set of such investigations are currently being performed. In summary, our data provide in vitro evidence that sorafenib inhibits TGF-β signaling and suppresses TGF-β1-induced EMT and apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes. We thank our colleagues Zheng Li, Jing Xie, Jiang-Sha Zhao, Shu-Yi Ji, and Xiao Hu for helpful discussions and technical assistance. We thank Dr. Ye-Guang Chen (Tsinghua Univ., P.R. China) for kindly providing Smad3 antibody. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. “
“A rapid and non-invasive method of detecting fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases is of major clinical interest. The purpose of this study was to comparatively investigate the effectiveness of the Liver Fibrosis Index (LF Index) calculated using real-time tissue elastography (RTE) in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Twenty-seven patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 93 patients with biopsy-proven CHC were included.

The efforts to stop the articular bleeds should be complemented b

The efforts to stop the articular bleeds should be complemented by a physiotherapy program oriented toward the recuperation of dorsiflexion and propioception of the foot and ankle[2]. Repetitive

bleeding into the ankle will produce a marginal osteophyte on the anterior portion of the tibia in the ankle [3]. It may be associated with chronic active synovitis, or be a vestige of previous articular inflammation that has subsided. The prominence of the osteophyte produces impingement of the synovium during dorsiflexion of the ankle which constitutes a mechanical impediment, therefore, Smoothened Agonist the treatment of this condition requires the removal of the osteophyte, by arthroscopic or open arthrotomy. As with plantar flexion deformities due to chronic synovitis, the focus of the physiotherapy effort in this condition should be on elongating the posterior ankle capsule and the retraction of the achilles tendon. Advanced hemophilic arthropathy of the ankle may also result in a plantar flexion deformity. The deformity results from a combination Lapatinib price of the contracture of the posterior capsule of the ankle and retraction of the achilles tendon and collapse of the dome of the talus, due to osteonecrosis and cartilage deterioration [4]. Ribbans and Phillips developed

a combined clinical and radiographic scoring system, specifically for hemophilic ankle arthropathy, which is helpful in deciding definitive treatment [5]. Severe arthropathy of the ankle with plantar flexion deformity and intractable pain has been treated exclusively, until recently, with a tibio-talar fusion. When severe plantarflexion deformity is present a high degree of technical difficulty will be encountered during surgery when bringing the foot to a neutral position. The contracture of the posterior capsule of the tibio-talar joint as well as that of the subtalar joint and the retraction of the achilles tendon may impede dorsiflexion

of the foot even after sufficient bone medchemexpress has been removed from the tibio-talar joint for the purpose of fusion. Recently, considerable progress in ankle arthroplasty has been obtained, anticipating a potential role for this procedure in primary hemophilic arthropathy of the ankle, and perhaps in reversion of fused ankles to a total ankle arthroplasty [6,7]. The current indication for these procedures in arthropathy of the ankle due to hemophilia remains to be defined. Contracture of the gastro-soleous muscle due to overlooked compartment syndrome of the calf due to muscle bleeds will lead to muscle scarring, contracture, often paresis, and ultimately, to a plantar flexion deformity of the ankle. Treatment of the contracture of the gastro-soleous unit requires lengthening of the achuilles tendon and often posterior capsulotomy of the tibio-talar joint and frequently of the subtalar joint.

HBsAg kinetics of decline paralleled the second phase of HDV decl

HBsAg kinetics of decline paralleled the second phase of HDV decline consistent with HBsAg-productive-infected cells being

the main source of production of HDV, with a median t1/2 of 135 days (IQR: 20-460). The interferon lambda-3 polymorphism (rs12979860) was not associated with kinetic parameters. Conclusion: Modeling results provide insights into HDV-host dynamics, the relationship between serum HBsAg levels and HBsAg-infected cells, IFN’s AT9283 mode of action, and its effectiveness. The observation that a flat second phase in HDV and HBsAg kinetics was associated with failure to achieve CVR provides the basis to develop early stopping rules during peg-IFN treatment in HDV-infected patients. (Hepatology 2014;60:1901–1909) “
“Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist have been shown to inhibit hepatocellular Crizotinib datasheet carcinoma (HCC) development, the role of PPARγ in hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of PPARγ against HCC. PPARγ-deficient (PPARγ+/−) and wild-type (PPARγ+/+) littermates were used in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC model and treated with PPARγ agonist (rosiglitazone) or the vehicle alone for 8 months. The effects of PPARγ on HCC cell growth and apoptosis were examined using PPARγ-expressing adenovirus (Ad-PPARγ). PPARγ+/− mice

were more susceptible to DEN-induced HCC than PPARγ+/+ mice (94% versus 62%, P < 0.05), and rosiglitazone significantly reduced the incidence of HCC in PPARγ+/+ mice (vehicle 62% versus treatment 24%, P < 0.01), but not in PPARγ+/− mice, indicating

that PPARγ suppresses 上海皓元 hepatocellular carcinogenesis. A pronounced expression of PPARγ was observed in a HCC cell line (Hep3B) infected with Ad-PPARγ. Such induction markedly suppressed HCC cell viability (P < 0.01). Further, Hep3B infection with Ad-PPARγ revealed a decreased proportion of cells in S-phase (12.92% versus 11.58%, P < 0.05), with arrest at G2/M phase (38.2% versus 55.68%, P < 0.001), and there was concomitant phosphorylation of the key G2/M phase inhibitors cdc25C and cdc2. PPARγ overexpression increased cell apoptosis (21.47% versus 35.02%, P < 0.01), mediated by both extrinsic (Fas and tumor necrosis factor-α) and intrinsic (caspase-9, caspase-3, caspase-7, and poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase) pathways. Moreover, PPARγ directly induced a putative tumor suppressor gene, growth differentiation factor-15. Conclusion: Loss of one PPARγ allele is sufficient to enhance susceptibility to HCC. PPARγ suppresses tumor cell growth through reducing cell proliferation and inducing G2/M phase arrest, apoptosis, and up-regulating growth differentiation factor-15. Thus, PPARγ acts as a tumor-suppressor gene in the liver. HEPATOLOGY 2010 Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide.1 The prognosis of HCC is poor with mortality almost equalling incidence1 with limited effective treatment options.

Our findings were similar to those from central Taiwan in a young

Our findings were similar to those from central Taiwan in a younger aged cohort of 12-15 years (97.3%).10 Loss of HB vaccine immune memory could be easily detected by low anti-HBs (<10 mIU/mL) production following one dose of booster HB vaccination. Defining the presence of HB vaccine selleck screening library immune memory could be problematic because production of higher anti-HBs (>10 mIU/mL) 1 month after booster vaccination may result from primary immune response or anamnestic response. Most studies gave a booster dose of the vaccine

to seronegative (anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL) subjects who had completed the HB vaccination in infancy. Blood samples were taken before and 3-4 weeks after vaccination. If the postvaccination serum remained seronegative, this subject was considered to have lost immune memory to HB vaccine antigens. However, there was a group of subjects who mounted low-level anti-HBs (10-100 mIU/mL) responses after one dose of the HB vaccine. The interpretation for these subjects was less

clear. They might manifest an anamnestic response or have lost immune memory and mounted a primary response. This study aimed to clarify this issue by studying early responses to HB vaccines. Our results demonstrated that early responders (anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL at 7-10 days after vaccination; groups B and C) eventually developed a significantly higher anti-HBs GMT at 1 month and 6 months compared with the nonearly responders (group A). Almost all early responders had high anti-HBs titer (≥100 mIU/mL) after 1 MAPK inhibitor month. This supported the notion that early responders medchemexpress maintained immune memory and thus would have more robust immune responses to HB vaccine compared with the nonearly responders. We also found that the levels of the early response were not critical. Those with early anti-HBs between 10 and 100

mIU/mL (group B) and anti-HBs ≥100 mIU/mL (group C) behaved similarly in the subsequent anti-HBs responses. Hence, we believe that a conversion of anti-HBs from <10 mIU/mL to ≥10 mIU/mL 7-10 days after one dose of the HB vaccine booster could be defined as the presence of immune memory. Participants with an early booster response had titers up to 20 times higher than those who could not mount an early response after 1 month. These findings suggest that when immune memory was present, anti-HBs responses could be induced as early as 1 week following a booster and such responders are likely to have protective titers after a single dose and may not need further doses. However, subjects who do not mount an anamnestic response might still be able to mount a protective response to infection. The nonresponding rates to plasma-derived HB vaccines have been estimated to be less than 10% according to previous studies.7, 19 Some of those who had a slow or no response to the second course of HB vaccines might be nonresponders but they are few. In our study, 94.

Our findings were similar to those from central Taiwan in a young

Our findings were similar to those from central Taiwan in a younger aged cohort of 12-15 years (97.3%).10 Loss of HB vaccine immune memory could be easily detected by low anti-HBs (<10 mIU/mL) production following one dose of booster HB vaccination. Defining the presence of HB vaccine HSP activation immune memory could be problematic because production of higher anti-HBs (>10 mIU/mL) 1 month after booster vaccination may result from primary immune response or anamnestic response. Most studies gave a booster dose of the vaccine

to seronegative (anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL) subjects who had completed the HB vaccination in infancy. Blood samples were taken before and 3-4 weeks after vaccination. If the postvaccination serum remained seronegative, this subject was considered to have lost immune memory to HB vaccine antigens. However, there was a group of subjects who mounted low-level anti-HBs (10-100 mIU/mL) responses after one dose of the HB vaccine. The interpretation for these subjects was less

clear. They might manifest an anamnestic response or have lost immune memory and mounted a primary response. This study aimed to clarify this issue by studying early responses to HB vaccines. Our results demonstrated that early responders (anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL at 7-10 days after vaccination; groups B and C) eventually developed a significantly higher anti-HBs GMT at 1 month and 6 months compared with the nonearly responders (group A). Almost all early responders had high anti-HBs titer (≥100 mIU/mL) after 1 GSK3 inhibitor month. This supported the notion that early responders 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 maintained immune memory and thus would have more robust immune responses to HB vaccine compared with the nonearly responders. We also found that the levels of the early response were not critical. Those with early anti-HBs between 10 and 100

mIU/mL (group B) and anti-HBs ≥100 mIU/mL (group C) behaved similarly in the subsequent anti-HBs responses. Hence, we believe that a conversion of anti-HBs from <10 mIU/mL to ≥10 mIU/mL 7-10 days after one dose of the HB vaccine booster could be defined as the presence of immune memory. Participants with an early booster response had titers up to 20 times higher than those who could not mount an early response after 1 month. These findings suggest that when immune memory was present, anti-HBs responses could be induced as early as 1 week following a booster and such responders are likely to have protective titers after a single dose and may not need further doses. However, subjects who do not mount an anamnestic response might still be able to mount a protective response to infection. The nonresponding rates to plasma-derived HB vaccines have been estimated to be less than 10% according to previous studies.7, 19 Some of those who had a slow or no response to the second course of HB vaccines might be nonresponders but they are few. In our study, 94.

4 M) Taken together, our data suggest that AH-RPS

might

4 M). Taken together, our data suggest that AH-RPS

might maintain its clay-dispersing activity and inhibit mutual flocculation of microalgae and suspended clay in saltern brine. “
“The dinophysoid dinoflagellates are currently divided into three families: Amphisoleniaceae, Dinophysaceae (mainly Dinophysis Ehrenb. and Phalacroma F. Stein), and Oxyphysaceae, the latter including only one member, Oxyphysis oxytoxoides Kof. Phalacroma has been recently reinstated separately from Dinophysis, and its amended description is currently restricted to cells whose epithecae MK-2206 cost were large but <1/4 of the cell length. With the aim of improving the phylogeny of Dinophysales, we obtained 54 new SSU rRNA gene sequences of 28 species. Taxon-rich SSU rDNA phylogenetic analysis showed that Dinophysales split into two major clades, one containing the Amphisoleniaceae (Amphisolenia F. Stein–Triposolenia Kof.) and the other containing the Dinophysaceae. The latter are divided into two well-supported sister groups, the Dinophysaceae sensu stricto (s.s.) (Dinophysis, Ornithocercus F. Stein, Histioneis F. Stein) and, tentatively, a separate family for the clade of the type and most of the Phalacroma species. Based on combined Acalabrutinib ic50 phylogenies of new SSU rDNA and available LSU rDNA

data, O. oxytoxoides (elongated epitheca, >1/4 of the cell length) branched with a strong support with the type of Phalacroma. We therefore propose Phalacroma oxytoxoides comb. nov. for O. oxytoxoides. Our SSU rDNA phylogeny also suggests that the assumed high intraspecific variability of Dinophysis hastata F. Stein hides a number of cryptic species. According to their distinct phylogenetic placement, the forms D. hastata f. phalacromides Jørg. and D. hastata f. uracanthides Jørg. should be erected at the species level. We propose for them the names Dinophysis phalacromoides comb. nov. and Dinophysis uracanthoides comb. nov. “
“At present, there is strong commercial demand for recombinant proteins, such as antigens, antibodies, biopharmaceuticals, and industrial enzymes, which cannot be fulfilled by existing 上海皓元 procedures. Thus, an intensive search for alternative models

that may provide efficiency, safety, and quality control is being undertaken by a number of laboratories around the world. The chloroplast of the eukaryotic microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow has arisen as a candidate for a novel expression platform for recombinant protein production. However, there are important drawbacks that need to be resolved before it can become such a system. The most significant of these are chloroplast genome characterizations, and the development of chloroplast transformation vectors based upon specific endogenous promoters and on homologous targeting regions. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of endogenous chloroplast sequences for use as genetic tools for the construction of H.

Moreover, we compared the population genetic structure of N iren

Moreover, we compared the population genetic structure of N. irene with its sister species Nehalennia gracilis, which lacks female polymorphism. Remarkably, our results indicate that the overall genetic variability is three times lower in N. irene than in N. gracilis, which might be related to the availability of the species’ preferred habitat. Furthermore, haplotype AUY-922 mw and nucleotide diversity of N. irene differed considerably among sampled sites and appears to be related to the spatial distribution in female morph frequencies. In addition to previously studied selective agents, we suggest that the species’ evolutionary history, such as random genetic drift during

recolonization, may also be important in explaining the current geographical distribution of female morph frequencies. “
“Natural environmental periodicity that occurs on both the small scale like day length, or larger scale like lunar light can provide animals with valuable information about resource availability and predation risk. Such environmental cycles are often linked to the timing of reproduction.

Here, using the circulating androgen concentrations, gonadal Y-27632 cost investment patterns and detailed behavioral observations we show that wild populations of the group-living cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher from Lake Tanganyika, have marked diurnal differences in behavior and lunar synchronicity in their reproductive physiology and behavior. Female ovarian investment peaked in the first quarter of the lunar cycle. In males, plasma steroid hormone levels and sperm swimming speed were highest at this same

lunar stage, supporting the idea that egg laying occurs during this phase and that young will emerge at full moon, perhaps because nocturnal predators can be best detected then. Female subordinate group members’ gonadal investment patterns mirrored the lunar pattern observed in dominant female breeders. In contrast, male subordinates did not show a change in gonadal investment or in steroid hormone concentrations across the lunar cycle, suggesting that female subordinates, but not male subordinates, reproduce within the social group. Neolamprologus pulcher demonstrated diurnal cycles in behavior, with higher rates MCE of feeding in the morning. Male and female breeding pairs were strongly size matched potentially as a result of size-assortative mating; also the gonadal investment of male and female mated pairs was strongly correlated indicating within-pair reproductive synchronicity. In general, this study provides evidence for the impact of environmental cues (sunlight and moonlight) on circulating hormones and reproduction in a small tropical freshwater fish. “
Canada. Given its large distribution range, historical events may be of particular relevance in explaining the observed spatial variation in morph frequencies in this species.

Its preoperative diagnosis is very difficult, and the treatment <

Its preoperative diagnosis is very difficult, and the treatment Selleckchem Selumetinib is still controversial. The aim is to summarize experience in diagnosis and management of hepatic AML from a cancer center. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical presentation, histopathological, features and treatment of the tumors encountered at our institute from January 2000 to December 2012. The patients included six females and two males, with female preponderance. Six patients

are asymptomatic. Laboratory tests lack specificity. Combining imaging modality, only one patient obtained the accurate diagnosis of hepatic AML and was confirmed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy combined with homatropine methylbromide-45 staining. All other patients received hepatic resection. There was no tumor recurrence or increase of tumor size within the follow-up period. We suggest fine-needle aspiration combined with homatropine methylbromide-45 staining should be performed in all patients who are asymptomatic and without serological abnormalities. Surgical Small molecule library price resection might be considered only if the malignant potential of the lesion cannot be ruled out or the tumor size is increasing during observation. “
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved small noncoding RNAs participating in regulation of various cellular processes. Viruses have been shown to utilize cellular

miRNAs to increase their replication in host cells. Until now, the role of miRNAs in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication has remained largely unknown. In this study, a number of miRNA mimics were transfected into hepatoma cell lines with HBV replication. It was noted that microRNA-1 (miR-1) transfection medchemexpress resulted in a marked increase of HBV replication, accompanied with up-regulated HBV transcription, antigen expression, and progeny secretion. However, bioinformatics and luciferase reporter analysis

suggested that miR-1 may not target the HBV genome directly but regulate the expression of host genes to enhance HBV replication. Further studies showed that miR-1 was able to enhance the HBV core promoter transcription activity by augmenting farnesoid X receptor α expression. In addition, miR-1 arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase and inhibited cell proliferation by targeting histone deacetylase 4 and E2F transcription factor 5. Analysis of the cellular gene expression profile indicated that miR-1 transfected hepatoma cells developed a differentiated phenotype of hepatocytes. Conclusion: MiR-1 regulates the expression of several host genes to enhance HBV replication and reverse cancer cell phenotype, which is apparently beneficial for HBV replication. Our findings provide a novel perspective on the role of miRNAs in host-virus interactions in HBV infection.

This involved replicating the original series of appointments and

This involved replicating the original series of appointments and significant additional expense to patients and clinicians alike. The protocol presented in this article avoids having to remake the most expensive portion of fixed implant prostheses—the frameworks. The protocol identifies the clinical and laboratory procedures involved in using existing frameworks and replacing preexisting denture bases and denture teeth, with minimal inconvenience to patients. “
“Purpose: This study was conducted to determine the abrasive effect of a porcelain

and an Ni–Cr alloy on the wear of human enamel, and the influence Caspase inhibitor of a carbonated beverage on the rate of wear. Materials and Methods: Tooth specimens were prepared by embedding 48 freshly extracted mandibular first premolars in acrylic. Twenty-four of these specimens were abraded against Ni–Cr, and the remaining 24 against porcelain in artificial saliva and carbonated beverage media, PD0325901 respectively (n = 12), on a specially designed abrasive testing machine at a constant load of 40 N with 6 mm amplitude for 15,000 cycles. The cusp heights of the tooth specimens were measured both before and after abrasion using a profile projector. The abraded cast specimens were subjected to profilometry for computing the surface roughness;

the abrading media was subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry for analyzing Ni and Cr ion levels. Data obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: Porcelain specimens in a medium of carbonated beverage

caused the highest wear of tooth specimens. The lowest wear of tooth specimens was Ni–Cr specimens in artificial saliva medium. Carbonated beverage caused significantly higher wear of tooth specimens when abraded against Ni–Cr and porcelain specimens than did artificial saliva. The mean quantitative surface roughness of porcelain specimens was significantly higher than that of Ni–Cr specimens, irrespective of the medium in which abrasion testing was conducted. There was no statistically significant difference between the concentrations of Ni ions released in artificial saliva and carbonated beverage media. Also, 上海皓元 there was no statistically significant difference between the concentrations of Cr ions released in artificial saliva and carbonated beverage media. Conclusions: The wear of human enamel was significantly higher in the presence of carbonated beverage than artificial saliva and against porcelain when compared with Ni–Cr. The surface roughness of porcelain in the presence of carbonated beverage was found to be highest, and the release of Ni and Cr was not affected by carbonated beverage. “
“Purpose: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of addition of metal filler particles on different strengths of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and to evaluate the thermal perception in vivo. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in two parts.