epidermidis ATCC 12228, considered as biofilm negative, and some clinical staphylococcal isolates without ica genes (also aap−) can form biofilms on some polytetrafluroethylene PTC124 vascular grafts after several days of incubation under static conditions. The majority of the ica-positive nasopharyngeal S. epidermidis isolates were also able to produce slime, which was monitored using the CRA test. This is in agreement with the data presented by other authors (Arciola et al., 2002; Stevens et al., 2008; El-Mahallawy et al., 2009); the presence of the ica operon was strongly associated with a slime-positive phenotype. However, ica-negative and slime-positive isolates in the CRA test were
also described in the present paper. Arciola et al. (2006) found a rather good concordance between the occurrence of ica genes, monitored using PCR-based analysis, and the CRA test. According to these authors, the MtP method appeared to be less appropriate for an accurate identification of staphylococcal capability of biofilm formation. In our study, there was a relation between the ability of biofilm formation by the MtP method and slime production in the CRA test among the ica-positive staphylococcal isolates. In contrast, most of the ica-negative strains
were positive by the CRA selleckchem test and possessed a biofilm-negative phenotype determined using the MtP method, especially for isolates harboring the aap gene. The literature data available regarding the CRA test yielded contrasting conclusions. Bozkurt et al. (2009) indicate that the CRA test should not be used for a biofilm formation ability assay in vitro of S. epidermidis because of misleading results. The specificity of this test is limited to the determination of staphylococcal ability to secrete slime rather than for the detection of bacterial adhesion and rapid growth in the form of a biofilm on the material’s surface. On the other hand, some authors (Arciola et al., 2006; Jain & Agarwal, 2009) recommended the CRA test as a reliable method to determine biofilm production. In our opinion, CRA and MtP tests are reliable methods to determine the ability of
slime/biofilm formation only in ica-positive S. epidermidis strains. Although previous studies (Vandecasteele et al., 2003; Cafiso et al., Urease 2004) have suggested that there is no strict association between the presence of the icaABCD operon and in vitro biofilm formation in invasive, colonizing and contaminant S. epidermidis, among the colonizing strains tested in our study, most of the biofilm producers (monitored using the MtP method) were the ica positive. In conclusion, S. epidermidis isolates possess the potential ability to form biofilms by ica-dependent and/or ica-independent mechanisms. In our opinion, further studies are needed to determine reliable, short-time criteria for the assessment in vitro of biofilm formation in staphylococci.