1/180.0 and an oxygenated sp2 carbon at δ 157.9, whereas a methoxy group at δ 4.00 coupled only with the latter carbon. The 13C NMR spectrum exhibited
additionally five quaternary and four sp2 methine carbons. Further HSQC and HMBC data (Fig. 3) suggested structure 1. Whereas the weak signal of C-8a showed the expected correlations with H-5 and H-7, the strongly broadened signal of C-9a could only be identified by comparison with authentic spectra: compound 1 is a new natural product but had been obtained previously by synthesis (Hagiwara et al., 2000; Knölker et al., 2002): the spectral data of the synthetic and natural 1 were identical within the error limits. Metabolites 2 and 3 were identified as carbazomycin D and F by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the literature (Kondo et al., 1986; Naid et
al., 1987; Laatsch, 2011). Compound 1 Linsitinib price has been used as key intermediate in the synthesis of carbazomycins A, B, G (Knölker Trametinib purchase & Fröhner, 1997; Knölker & Schlechtingen, 1997; Hagiwara et al., 2000; Knölker et al., 2003), and carbazoquinocin C (Knölker et al., 2002) but this is the first report on its isolation from nature. It is plausible that compound 1 and the carbazomycins D (2) and F (3), which also had been isolated in this study, are in a biosynthetic relation. The nematicidal activity of the carbazole-1,4-quinones isolated here and further derivatives will be investigated in future experiments. This research was supported by The Royal Golden Jubilee PhD Program (PHD/0064/2549) and DAAD. The Graduate School of Chiang Mai University is also thankfully acknowledged. We thank Prof. Dr H.-J. Knölker (University of Dresden, Germany) for kindly providing NMR spectra of synthetic 1. Appendix S1. Mass, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC and HSQC Rebamipide spectra of 3-methoxy-2-methyl-carbazole-1,4-quinone; Mass and 1H NMR spectra of carbazomycin D and,
Mass and 1H NMR spectra of carbazomycin F. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Two bacterial strains (DY05T and 47666-1) were isolated in Queensland, Australia, from diseased cultured crustaceans Panulirus ornatus and Penaeus monodon, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence identity, the strains were shown to belong to the Harveyi clade of the genus Vibrio. Multilocus sequence analysis using five housekeeping genes (rpoA, pyrH, topA, ftsZ and mreB) showed that the strains form a monophyletic group with 94.4% concatenated sequence identity to the closest species. DNA–DNA hybridization experiments showed that strains DY05T and 47666-1 had 76% DNA similarity to each other, but <70% to their closest neighbours Vibrio harveyi LMG 4044T (≤55%), Vibrio campbellii LMG 11216T (≤52%) and Vibrio rotiferianus LMG 21460T (≤46%).