Total nucleic acid was extracted from leaf tissues and subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd)-specific primers, followed by sequencing of PCR products. RT-PCR with HSVd primers amplified a 302- or 305-bp product from affected samples, but none from healthy plants. CEVd was not detected in affected trees. HSVd was also found in graft- and mechanically
inoculated plants. Sequence analyses showed three variants of HSVd in symptomatic mulberries related to plum and peach variants of this viroid with 94.9% identity, but with only 93% identity to Lebanese and Italian mulberry isolates. This is the first report of HSVd associated with vein clearing in mulberry in Iran. “
“Brown eye spot, Selleck XL765 caused by Cercospora coffeicola, Sunitinib is an important disease of coffee. Both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces were inoculated with a conidial suspension of C. coffeicola. Samples were collected from 4 to 168 h after inoculation and then again at 35 days. Germinated conidia showed positive tropism to stomata where attempted penetrations occurred. Appressoria were not observed. After penetration, C. coffeicola colonized the lacunous parenchyma both inter and intracellularly. Sporulation occurred through or
around the stomata. Results from this study provide new insights into the infection process of C. coffeicola on coffee leaf. “
“Alfalfa fields in three western provinces of Iran were surveyed for Peanut stunt virus (PSV) during 2011 and 2012. Forty-seven of 115 samples tested (41%) were infected with PSV. Phylogenetic analysis using coat protein (CP) gene sequences showed that the Iranian isolates belong to the subgroup II of PSV. Pairwise identity analysis revealed four groups representing
four http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/Rapamycin.html phylogenetic subgroups. PSV strains in subgroups III and IV are closely related to each other, as supported by the lowest nucleotide diversity, high pairwise nucleotide identity and high haplotype diversity as evidence of a recent population expansion after a genetic bottleneck. Using the maximum likelihood method, amino acid 86S in the CP gene of the Iranian PSV isolates was found to be under positive selection, although the likelihood ratio test statistics is not significant. This is the first report of the occurrence and phylogenetic relationships of Iranian PSV isolates in west Iran. “
“Gummy stem blight (GSB) is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of cucurbits, worldwide. To identify and characterize the pathogen which causes GSB on watermelon and muskmelon in East China, morphological characteristics, pathogenicity assays as well as sequence characterization of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were performed on 41 isolates collected from Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui and Jiangxi provinces.